Raw cow milk is one of the most complex and unpredictable food matrices shaped by the interaction between biotic and abiotic factors. Changes in dairy farming conditions impact the quality and safety of milk, which largely depend on seasonality. Changes in microbiome composition and relative metabolic pathways are derived from microbial interactions, as well as from seasonality, mammary, and extramammary conditions (e.g., farm management and outdoor environment). Breeding data from >600 Apulian farms were examined, and the associated physicochemical parameters were processed by a reductionist approach to obtain a raw cow milk sample subset. We investigated the microbiological variability in cultivable and 16S rRNA sequencing microbiota as affected by seasonal fluctuations at two time points (winter and summer seasons). We identified families (Xanthomonadaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Pseudomonadaceae) whose increased abundance during winter may cause a shift toward a pathobiont microbial niche that leads to lower milk quality. Apulian summer season conditions were advantageous to the presence of specific taxa, i.e., Streptococcaceae (i.e., Lactococcus) and Limosilactobacillus fermentum, which in turn may favor better milk preservation. IMPORTANCE The strength of this study lies in the microbiological characterization of a wide range of farm management data to achieve a more comprehensive framework of Apulian milk. Specific regional pedoclimatic and management conditions impact the taxa present and their abundances within this ecological food niche. The obtained results lay the groundwork for comparison with other worldwide extensive farming areas.The strength of this study lies in the microbiological characterization of a wide range of farm management data to achieve a more comprehensive framework of Apulian milk. Specific regional pedoclimatic and management conditions impact the taxa present and their abundances within this ecological food niche. The obtained results lay the groundwork for comparison with other worldwide extensive farming areas.

Effect of Seasonality on Microbiological Variability of Raw Cow Milk from Apulian Dairy Farms in Italy

Celano, Giuseppe
Writing – Review & Editing
;
Calasso, Maria;Costantino, Giuseppe;Vacca, Mirco;Ressa, Arianna;De Palo, Pasquale;Calabrese, Francesco Maria
;
De Angelis, Maria
2022-01-01

Abstract

Raw cow milk is one of the most complex and unpredictable food matrices shaped by the interaction between biotic and abiotic factors. Changes in dairy farming conditions impact the quality and safety of milk, which largely depend on seasonality. Changes in microbiome composition and relative metabolic pathways are derived from microbial interactions, as well as from seasonality, mammary, and extramammary conditions (e.g., farm management and outdoor environment). Breeding data from >600 Apulian farms were examined, and the associated physicochemical parameters were processed by a reductionist approach to obtain a raw cow milk sample subset. We investigated the microbiological variability in cultivable and 16S rRNA sequencing microbiota as affected by seasonal fluctuations at two time points (winter and summer seasons). We identified families (Xanthomonadaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Pseudomonadaceae) whose increased abundance during winter may cause a shift toward a pathobiont microbial niche that leads to lower milk quality. Apulian summer season conditions were advantageous to the presence of specific taxa, i.e., Streptococcaceae (i.e., Lactococcus) and Limosilactobacillus fermentum, which in turn may favor better milk preservation. IMPORTANCE The strength of this study lies in the microbiological characterization of a wide range of farm management data to achieve a more comprehensive framework of Apulian milk. Specific regional pedoclimatic and management conditions impact the taxa present and their abundances within this ecological food niche. The obtained results lay the groundwork for comparison with other worldwide extensive farming areas.The strength of this study lies in the microbiological characterization of a wide range of farm management data to achieve a more comprehensive framework of Apulian milk. Specific regional pedoclimatic and management conditions impact the taxa present and their abundances within this ecological food niche. The obtained results lay the groundwork for comparison with other worldwide extensive farming areas.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11586/409090
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