BACKGROUND The okara is the water-insoluble residue derived from the production of plant-based beverages, including almond milk. Information on almond okara is scarce, with no scientific references. In the present study, the almond okara was characterized and used to replace wheat flour at 15%, 25% and 35% for biscuit preparation. RESULTS The contents of protein, lipid and dietary fiber of almond okara were 140.08, 421.16 and 407.90 g kg(-1) dry matter, respectively. The lipid fraction of almond okara showed contents of triacylglycerol oligopolymers and oxidized triacylglycerols of 0.12 and 5.14 g kg(-1), respectively, which were significantly lower than the levels observed in the sunflower oil used in the formulation of biscuits. Consequently, the biscuits containing okara showed a content of triacylglycerol oligopolymers lower than that of control biscuits. The texture analysis revealed that the addition of the okara at 25% and 35% caused a significant increase in biscuit hardness and a reduction of the brittleness, compared to the control. The sensory evaluation confirmed these data, highlighting the slight impact of the almond okara on the almond odor, taste and flavor attributes. CONCLUSION Almond okara is a valuable by-product that can be easily used as an ingredient for biscuit preparation, exploiting its fiber, protein and lipid content to improve the nutritional value of food, with a limited impact on the sensory properties. (c) 2022 Society of Chemical Industry.

Almond okara as a valuable ingredient in biscuit preparation

De Angelis, Davide;Pasqualone, Antonella;Squeo, Giacomo;Summo, Carmine
2023-01-01

Abstract

BACKGROUND The okara is the water-insoluble residue derived from the production of plant-based beverages, including almond milk. Information on almond okara is scarce, with no scientific references. In the present study, the almond okara was characterized and used to replace wheat flour at 15%, 25% and 35% for biscuit preparation. RESULTS The contents of protein, lipid and dietary fiber of almond okara were 140.08, 421.16 and 407.90 g kg(-1) dry matter, respectively. The lipid fraction of almond okara showed contents of triacylglycerol oligopolymers and oxidized triacylglycerols of 0.12 and 5.14 g kg(-1), respectively, which were significantly lower than the levels observed in the sunflower oil used in the formulation of biscuits. Consequently, the biscuits containing okara showed a content of triacylglycerol oligopolymers lower than that of control biscuits. The texture analysis revealed that the addition of the okara at 25% and 35% caused a significant increase in biscuit hardness and a reduction of the brittleness, compared to the control. The sensory evaluation confirmed these data, highlighting the slight impact of the almond okara on the almond odor, taste and flavor attributes. CONCLUSION Almond okara is a valuable by-product that can be easily used as an ingredient for biscuit preparation, exploiting its fiber, protein and lipid content to improve the nutritional value of food, with a limited impact on the sensory properties. (c) 2022 Society of Chemical Industry.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11586/416814
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