In the present study, the sensory characteristics and the volatile organic compound (VOC) profiles of high-moisture mozzarella made by different acidification techniques were compared. The cheeses were manufactured at the same dairy by fermentation by autochthonous natural whey starter (traditional backslopping method) and direct acidification with citric acid (the most used industrial technology). Three cheesemaking trials were performed from February to June using raw milk from a single farm. The mozzarella samples were subjected to assessment of the chemical, microbiological, and sensory characteristics and to VOC analysis by headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The relevant microbiological differences found between the 2 types of products were reflected in different sensory and VOC profiles. The cheeses were clearly discriminated by the panel, and traditional mozzarella had higher intensity attributes. The most discriminating descriptors were elasticity, overall odor and taste intensity, sour milk and fruity/vegetable odors, sour taste, and aftertaste. Even though some variability was observed among the trials, the VOC profile of traditional product was always much more complex than that obtained by direct acidification. In both products the carbonyl compounds were the most abundant chemical class, accounting for about 50% of the total. In detail, 51 compounds were identified in the entire set of samples, and their contribution to cheese aroma was roughly estimated by calculating the odor activity values on the basis of the odor thresholds available in the literature. The results allowed hypothesizing that only 12 of them could play a primary role. The most important among the odor-active compounds was 3-methyl-butanal that can both derive from metabolism of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts. The results of the study may be very useful in view of European Union PDO labeling of the traditional product, in terms of protecting it from imitations.

Short communication: Sensory characteristics and volatile organic compound profile of high-moisture mozzarella made by traditional and direct acidification technology

Natrella, G;Faccia, M;De Palo, P;Gambacorta, G
2020

Abstract

In the present study, the sensory characteristics and the volatile organic compound (VOC) profiles of high-moisture mozzarella made by different acidification techniques were compared. The cheeses were manufactured at the same dairy by fermentation by autochthonous natural whey starter (traditional backslopping method) and direct acidification with citric acid (the most used industrial technology). Three cheesemaking trials were performed from February to June using raw milk from a single farm. The mozzarella samples were subjected to assessment of the chemical, microbiological, and sensory characteristics and to VOC analysis by headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The relevant microbiological differences found between the 2 types of products were reflected in different sensory and VOC profiles. The cheeses were clearly discriminated by the panel, and traditional mozzarella had higher intensity attributes. The most discriminating descriptors were elasticity, overall odor and taste intensity, sour milk and fruity/vegetable odors, sour taste, and aftertaste. Even though some variability was observed among the trials, the VOC profile of traditional product was always much more complex than that obtained by direct acidification. In both products the carbonyl compounds were the most abundant chemical class, accounting for about 50% of the total. In detail, 51 compounds were identified in the entire set of samples, and their contribution to cheese aroma was roughly estimated by calculating the odor activity values on the basis of the odor thresholds available in the literature. The results allowed hypothesizing that only 12 of them could play a primary role. The most important among the odor-active compounds was 3-methyl-butanal that can both derive from metabolism of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts. The results of the study may be very useful in view of European Union PDO labeling of the traditional product, in terms of protecting it from imitations.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11586/255966
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