Donkey milk is characterized by low contents of total solids, fat, and caseins, especially κ-casein, which results in formation of a very weak gel upon renneting. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of fortification of donkey milk with microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) for cheesemaking in relation to different enzyme addition protocols (patterns, PAT). Four independent trials were performed using MTGase (5.0 U/g of milk protein) according to the following experimental patterns: control (no MTGase addition); MTGase addition (40°C) 15 min before starter inoculation (PAT1); addition of MTGase to milk simultaneously with starter culture (40°C) (PAT2); and MTGase addition simultaneously with rennet (42°C) in acidified milk (pH 6.3) (PAT3). Evolution of pH during acidification, cheesemaking parameters, and proximal composition and color of cheese at 24 h were recorded. The protein fractions of cheese and whey were investigated by urea-PAGE and sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE. Addition of MTGase had no significant effect on moisture, protein, fat, or cheese yield. The addition of MTGase with rennet (PAT3) improved curd firmness compared with the control. Among the different patterns of MTGase addition, PAT3 reduced gel formation time, time between rennet addition and cheese molding, and weight loss of cheese at 24 h. The PAT3 treatment also resulted in the lowest lightness and highest yellowness color values of the cheese. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE of cheeses revealed that MTGase modified the protein pattern in the high-molecular-weight zone (range 37-75 kDa) compared with the control. Of the MTGase protocols, PAT3 showed better casein retention in cheese, as confirmed by the lanes of α- and β-caseins in the electropherogram of the whey, which was subtler for this protocol. In conclusion, MTGase may be used in cheese production from donkey milk to improve curd firmness; MTGase should be added simultaneously with the rennet.
|Titolo:||Production of cheese from donkey milk as influenced by addition of transglutaminase|
D'ALESSANDRO, Angela Gabriella (Corresponding)
|Data di pubblicazione:||2019|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|