In recent years, several studies have focused on the growth conditions of the diamonds through the analysis of the mineral inclusions trapped in them. In these studies, it is crucial to distinguish between protogenetic, syngenetic and epigenetic inclusions. X-ray topography (XRDT) can be a helpful tool to verify the genetic nature of inclusions in diamond. This technique characterizes, in a non-destructive way, the extended defects within a mineral and reconstructs the growth history of the sample (Agrosì et al., 2013). With this aim a diamond from the Udachnaya kimberlite, Siberia, was investigated. The diamond crystal was the one previously studied by Nestola et al. (2011) who performed in-situ crystal structure refinement of the olivine inclusions to obtain data about the formation pressure. Optical observations revealed an anomalous birefringence in the adjacent diamond and the inclusions had typical “diamond-imposed cubo- octahedral” shape for the largest olivines. The diffraction contrast study shows that the diamond exhibits significant deformation fields related to plastic post growth deformation. Section topographs revealed that no dislocations nucleated from the olivine inclusions. Generally, when a solid inclusion has been incorporated in full-grown state in another growing crystal, the associated volume distortion needs of a number of dislocations to ensure a better connection between the inclusion and the host phase. In some cases, complex twinning can be developed (Agrosì et al., 2013). In our case, the olivine assumes the morphology imposed from the diamond and, consequently, it does not produce volume distortion and the nucleation of dislocations is not necessary. This process generally occur during the simultaneously growth of the two minerals, confirming what was already stated by Bulanova (1995). However, the syngenetic nature of inclusions generally implies epitaxial relationship between diamond and inclusions that in our sample can be ruled out because the orientations of these olivines are random (Bruno et al., 2014). Therefore, the specific and significant results that characterize this sample will be discussed in detail.
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