Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) by Leishmania infantum is a polysystemic disease widely distributed in many Mediterranean countries which can be fatal if left untreated. In endemic areas a high percentage of asymptomatic/pauci‐symptomatic dogs have been registered1,2. In human patients with visceral leishmaniasis the state of parenchymatous organs have been investigated using ultrasounds in one study3 and interesting focal macronodular lesions in the liver and/or spleen have been described in single cases4,5,6,7. Differently no data are actually available on abdominal ultrasonographic findings registered in CanL except for a single case8. The aim of the present study is to characterize the state of abdominal parenchymatous organs of dogs affected by leishmaniasis using ultrasonography. Thirty‐one dogs naturally infected by L. infantum were retrospectively enrolled in the study. Inclusion criteria were the manifestation of at least one clinical‐pathological sign referred to CanL associated to the presence of amastigotes in the lymph‐node smears, no evidence of other diseses and the presence of an ultrasound examination at diagnosis and eventually in follow up. Morphologic changes of abdominal organs, including size, focal or diffused lesions and change in echogenicity and echo‐texture were recorded. The most common pathological findings were: spleen from mild to severely enlarged registered in 15 dogs appearing hypoecoic or with a coarse hypoechoic parenchimal pattern; hyperechogenicity of renal cortex revealed in 13 dogs and hepatomegaly in 5. Interesting findings were: enlarged abdominal lymph‐nodes described in two dogs, a honeycomb splenic parenchimal pattern described in two dogs and a small liver with irregular margins suggestive of a chronic process revealed in other two dogs. The echographic followup post treatment was available only in 9 dogs showing a reverse to normal of ultrasound pathologic findings (i.e: honeycomb aspect of the spleen disappeared; enlarged organs reverse to normal size). Pathological findings are discussed. Results of this study suggest that ultrasonography could represent a further means in the diagnosis and monitoring of dogs affected by leishmaniosis; in particular it could contribute to increase the suspicion of infection in pauci‐symptomatic dogs and be useful to monitor the efficacy ot treatment. Focal macronodular lesions in spleen and liver (as described in humans) were not registered but the study is ongoing to collect data on an enlarged population.

ABDOMINAL ULTRASONOGRAPHIC FINDINGS ASSOCIATED WITH CANINE LEISHMANIOSIS: A RETROSPECTIVE REVIEW OF 31 CASES

PARADIES, PAOLA;RUBINO, Giuseppe Tomm.Rob;SASANELLI, Mariateresa
2013

Abstract

Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) by Leishmania infantum is a polysystemic disease widely distributed in many Mediterranean countries which can be fatal if left untreated. In endemic areas a high percentage of asymptomatic/pauci‐symptomatic dogs have been registered1,2. In human patients with visceral leishmaniasis the state of parenchymatous organs have been investigated using ultrasounds in one study3 and interesting focal macronodular lesions in the liver and/or spleen have been described in single cases4,5,6,7. Differently no data are actually available on abdominal ultrasonographic findings registered in CanL except for a single case8. The aim of the present study is to characterize the state of abdominal parenchymatous organs of dogs affected by leishmaniasis using ultrasonography. Thirty‐one dogs naturally infected by L. infantum were retrospectively enrolled in the study. Inclusion criteria were the manifestation of at least one clinical‐pathological sign referred to CanL associated to the presence of amastigotes in the lymph‐node smears, no evidence of other diseses and the presence of an ultrasound examination at diagnosis and eventually in follow up. Morphologic changes of abdominal organs, including size, focal or diffused lesions and change in echogenicity and echo‐texture were recorded. The most common pathological findings were: spleen from mild to severely enlarged registered in 15 dogs appearing hypoecoic or with a coarse hypoechoic parenchimal pattern; hyperechogenicity of renal cortex revealed in 13 dogs and hepatomegaly in 5. Interesting findings were: enlarged abdominal lymph‐nodes described in two dogs, a honeycomb splenic parenchimal pattern described in two dogs and a small liver with irregular margins suggestive of a chronic process revealed in other two dogs. The echographic followup post treatment was available only in 9 dogs showing a reverse to normal of ultrasound pathologic findings (i.e: honeycomb aspect of the spleen disappeared; enlarged organs reverse to normal size). Pathological findings are discussed. Results of this study suggest that ultrasonography could represent a further means in the diagnosis and monitoring of dogs affected by leishmaniosis; in particular it could contribute to increase the suspicion of infection in pauci‐symptomatic dogs and be useful to monitor the efficacy ot treatment. Focal macronodular lesions in spleen and liver (as described in humans) were not registered but the study is ongoing to collect data on an enlarged population.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11586/64531
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