Pediatric obesity is a growing and alarming global health problem and represents an important determinant of morbidity. Since nutrition plays an important role in regulating growth and development, the excess weight gain related to overnutrition can affect growth patterns, bone maturation and pubertal development. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current knowledge about the effect of primary obesity on linear growth and pubertal development in children and adolescents. Evidences about regulatory hormones and adipokines that may be involved in the physiology of childhood growth in the context of obesity were also discussed. The most recent literature confirms previous studies indicating that linear growth is accelerated (mainly due to longer trunks rather than longer legs) and bone age is advanced in prepubertal children with obesity, while there is a reduction of pubertal height gain and attainment of normal adult height. Conflicting results are reported on the timing of puberty, specifically in boys. Indeed, previous studies suggested earlier onset of puberty in obese girls and overweight boys, and a delayed puberty in obese boys. Conversely, the most recent studies show more consistently an earlier onset and completion of pubertal development also in boys with obesity. Considering the false belief of health associated with transient taller stature in children and the adverse outcomes related to early puberty, interventions on diet and physical activity are urgently needed to tackle the epidemics of childhood obesity in public health and clinical setting.

Linear growth and puberty in childhood obesity: what is new?

Faienza MF;Delvecchio M;
2021

Abstract

Pediatric obesity is a growing and alarming global health problem and represents an important determinant of morbidity. Since nutrition plays an important role in regulating growth and development, the excess weight gain related to overnutrition can affect growth patterns, bone maturation and pubertal development. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current knowledge about the effect of primary obesity on linear growth and pubertal development in children and adolescents. Evidences about regulatory hormones and adipokines that may be involved in the physiology of childhood growth in the context of obesity were also discussed. The most recent literature confirms previous studies indicating that linear growth is accelerated (mainly due to longer trunks rather than longer legs) and bone age is advanced in prepubertal children with obesity, while there is a reduction of pubertal height gain and attainment of normal adult height. Conflicting results are reported on the timing of puberty, specifically in boys. Indeed, previous studies suggested earlier onset of puberty in obese girls and overweight boys, and a delayed puberty in obese boys. Conversely, the most recent studies show more consistently an earlier onset and completion of pubertal development also in boys with obesity. Considering the false belief of health associated with transient taller stature in children and the adverse outcomes related to early puberty, interventions on diet and physical activity are urgently needed to tackle the epidemics of childhood obesity in public health and clinical setting.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11586/378330
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