P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is highly expressed on blood-brain barrier (BBB) and glioblastoma (GB) cells, particularly on cancer stem cells (SC). Pgp recognizes a broad spectrum of substrates, limiting the therapeutic efficacy of several chemotherapeutic drugs in eradicating GB SC. Finding effective and safe inhibitors of Pgp that improve drug delivery across the BBB and target GB SC is open to investigation. We previously identified a series of thiosemicarbazone compounds that inhibit Pgp with an EC50 in the nanomolar range, and herein, we investigate the efficacy of three of them in bypassing Pgp-mediated drug efflux in primary human BBB and GB cells. At 10 nM, the compounds were not cytotoxic for the brain microvascular endothelial hCMEC/D3 cell line, but they markedly enhanced the permeability of the Pgp-substrate doxorubicin through the BBB. Thiosemicarbazone derivatives increased doxorubicin uptake in GB, with greater effects in the Pgp-rich SC clones than in the differentiated clones derived from the same tumor. All compounds increased intratumor doxorubicin accumulation and consequent toxicity in GB growing under competent BBB, producing significant killing of GB SC. The compounds crossed the BBB monolayer. The most stable derivative, 10a, had a half-life in serum of 4.2 h. The coadministration of doxorubicin plus 10a significantly reduced the growth of orthotopic GB-SC xenografts, without eliciting toxic side effects. Our work suggests that the thiosemicarbazone compounds are able to transform doxorubicin, a prototype BBB-impermeable drug, into a BBB-permeable drug. Bypassing Pgp-mediated drug efflux in both BBB and GB SC, thiosemicarbazones might increase the success of chemotherapy in targeting GB SC, which represent the most aggressive and difficult components to eradicate.
|Titolo:||Validation of Thiosemicarbazone Compounds as P-Glycoprotein Inhibitors in Human Primary Brain-Blood Barrier and Glioblastoma Stem Cells|
ABATE, CARMEN [Investigation]
BERARDI, Francesco [Investigation]
|Data di pubblicazione:||2019|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|