CaciocavalloPugliesecheese during ripening is reported. Fully ripened cheese contained a total of ca. log 8.0 cfu g−1 mesophilic bacteria and ca. log 6.0 cfu g−1 presumptive staphylococci, while the number of thermophilic and mesophilic rod and coccus lactic acid bacteria varied during ripening. A two-step RAPD-PCR protocol was used to differentiate biotypes. The natural whey starter was composed mainly of Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lb. fermentum, Lb. gasseri, Lb. helveticus and Streptococcus thermophilus strains. After day 1 of ripening, Lb. delbrueckii became dominant and some strains of Enterococcus durans and E. faecalis appeared. Non-starter lactic acid bacteria, such as Lb. parabuchneri and Lb. paracasei subsp. paracasei formed a large part of the lactic microflora at 42 and 60 d of ripening. The level of pH 4.6-soluble nitrogen increased from the outer to the inner of the cheese and also increased in each section as ripening progressed, attaining values of 18–15%. Urea-PAGE electrophoresis showed that degradation of αs1-casein was more rapid than that of β-casein throughout ripening and the rates at which both caseins were degraded greatly increased from the outside to the inside of the cheese. Based on the primary proteolysis products, both chymosin and plasmin appeared to be active. RP-HPLC profiles of the 70% ethanol-soluble, pH 4.6-soluble nitrogen, showed a large number of peaks, indicating a heterogeneous mixture of proteolytic products. There were both age- and section-related changes in the area of the different peptide peaks. Butyric (C4:0), caproic (C6:0), palmitic (C16:0) and oleic (C18:1) acids were the free fatty acids found at the highest concentrations. The level of short chain fatty acids (e.g., butyric and caproic) decreased from the middle and inner to outer sections of the cheese. Peptidase activity in the curd was pronounced, increased during ripening and varied with the cheese section. The greatest increase of the peptidase activity coincided with a change in the lactic microflora and with the prevalence of non-starter lactic acid bacteria. Microbial esterases were supposed to be active together with rennet paste. Little change in the firmness and fractures stress during maturation were found by textural analyses of the raw cheese. The flowability was similar to that of typical low-moisture Mozzarella cheese, while stretchability was lower. The heat-induced changes in phase angle of CaciocavalloPugliesecheese indicated a phase transition from largely elastic rheological characteristics in unheated cheese to a more viscous and fluid character in melted cheese.

Microbiological, compositional, biochemical and textural characterization of Caciocavallo Pugliese cheese during ripening

GOBBETTI, Marco;DI CAGNO, RAFFAELLA;
2002

Abstract

CaciocavalloPugliesecheese during ripening is reported. Fully ripened cheese contained a total of ca. log 8.0 cfu g−1 mesophilic bacteria and ca. log 6.0 cfu g−1 presumptive staphylococci, while the number of thermophilic and mesophilic rod and coccus lactic acid bacteria varied during ripening. A two-step RAPD-PCR protocol was used to differentiate biotypes. The natural whey starter was composed mainly of Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lb. fermentum, Lb. gasseri, Lb. helveticus and Streptococcus thermophilus strains. After day 1 of ripening, Lb. delbrueckii became dominant and some strains of Enterococcus durans and E. faecalis appeared. Non-starter lactic acid bacteria, such as Lb. parabuchneri and Lb. paracasei subsp. paracasei formed a large part of the lactic microflora at 42 and 60 d of ripening. The level of pH 4.6-soluble nitrogen increased from the outer to the inner of the cheese and also increased in each section as ripening progressed, attaining values of 18–15%. Urea-PAGE electrophoresis showed that degradation of αs1-casein was more rapid than that of β-casein throughout ripening and the rates at which both caseins were degraded greatly increased from the outside to the inside of the cheese. Based on the primary proteolysis products, both chymosin and plasmin appeared to be active. RP-HPLC profiles of the 70% ethanol-soluble, pH 4.6-soluble nitrogen, showed a large number of peaks, indicating a heterogeneous mixture of proteolytic products. There were both age- and section-related changes in the area of the different peptide peaks. Butyric (C4:0), caproic (C6:0), palmitic (C16:0) and oleic (C18:1) acids were the free fatty acids found at the highest concentrations. The level of short chain fatty acids (e.g., butyric and caproic) decreased from the middle and inner to outer sections of the cheese. Peptidase activity in the curd was pronounced, increased during ripening and varied with the cheese section. The greatest increase of the peptidase activity coincided with a change in the lactic microflora and with the prevalence of non-starter lactic acid bacteria. Microbial esterases were supposed to be active together with rennet paste. Little change in the firmness and fractures stress during maturation were found by textural analyses of the raw cheese. The flowability was similar to that of typical low-moisture Mozzarella cheese, while stretchability was lower. The heat-induced changes in phase angle of CaciocavalloPugliesecheese indicated a phase transition from largely elastic rheological characteristics in unheated cheese to a more viscous and fluid character in melted cheese.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11586/132626
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