Group C rotaviruses have been recognized as a cause of acute gastroenteritis in humans, cattle, and swine, although the true epidemiologic and clinical importance of this virus in these hosts has not yet been fully established. A real-time PCR assay based on a broadly reactive primer pair was developed and used to quantitatively determine the viral load of group C rotaviruses in environmental samples. A total of 35 raw and 35 treated sewage samples collected at the same sampling time in four Hungarian sewage treatment plants during a survey in 2005 were tested for the presence of group C rotaviruses. The overall detection rates were 91% (32 of 35) for the influent and 57% (20 of 35) for the effluent samples. Molecular characterization of the amplified partial VP6 gene revealed the cocirculation of human and animal (i.e., bovine and porcine) strains that were easily distinguishable by melting curve analysis. Human strains yielded relatively high viral loads (mean, 1.2 x 10(7); median, 6.9 x 10(5) genome equivalents per liter influent sewage) and appeared to display seasonal activity over the study period, whereas animal strains appeared to circulate throughout the year at much lower average titers (bovine strains mean, 9.9 x 10(4); median, 3.0 x 10(4); porcine strains mean, 3.9 x 10(4); median, 3.1 x 10(4) genome equivalents per liter influent sewage). Our findings suggest that monitoring of communal sewage may provide a good surrogate for investigating the epidemiology and ecology of group C rotaviruses in humans and animals.
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|Titolo:||Detection and quantification of group C rotaviruses in sewage samples|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2008|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|