Riboflavin, or vitamin B2, is the precursor of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), essential redox (and sometimes non-redox) cofactors of a large number of flavoenzymes involved in energetic metabolism, protein folding, apoptosis, chromatin remodeling, and a number of other cell regulatory processes.The cellular and subcellular steady-state concentrations of flavin cofactors, which are available for flavoprotein biogenesis and assembly, depend on carrier-mediated transport processes and on coordinated synthesizing/destroying enzymatic activities, catalyzed by enzymes whose catalytic and structural properties are still matter of investigation.Alteration of flavin homeostasis has been recently correlated to human pathological conditions, such as neuromuscular disorders and cancer, and therefore we propose here protocols useful to detect metabolic processes involved in FAD forming and destroying.Our protocols exploit the chemical-structural differences between riboflavin, FMN , and FAD , which are responsible for differences in the spectroscopic properties (mainly fluorescence) of the two cofactors (FMN and FAD); therefore, in our opinion, when applicable measurements of fluorescence changes in continuo represent the elective techniques to follow FAD synthesis and degradation. Thus, after procedures able to calibrate flavin concentrations (Subheading 3.1), we describe simple continuous and rapid procedures, based on the peculiar optical properties of free flavins, useful to determine the rate of cofactor metabolism catalyzed by either recombinant enzymes or natural enzymes present in cellular lysates/subfractions (Subheading 3.2).Fluorescence properties of free flavins can also be useful in analytical determinations of the three molecular flavin forms, based on HPLC separation, with a quite high sensitivity. Assaying at different incubation times the molecular composition of the reaction mixture is a discontinuous experimental approach to measure the rate of FAD synthesis/degradation catalyzed by cell lysates or recombinant FAD synthase (Subheading 3.3). Continuous and discontinuous approaches can, when necessary, be performed in parallel.

Continuous and Discontinuous Approaches to Study FAD Synthesis and Degradation Catalyzed by Purified Recombinant FAD Synthase or Cellular Fractions

Leone, Piero;Tolomeo, Maria;Barile, Maria
2021

Abstract

Riboflavin, or vitamin B2, is the precursor of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), essential redox (and sometimes non-redox) cofactors of a large number of flavoenzymes involved in energetic metabolism, protein folding, apoptosis, chromatin remodeling, and a number of other cell regulatory processes.The cellular and subcellular steady-state concentrations of flavin cofactors, which are available for flavoprotein biogenesis and assembly, depend on carrier-mediated transport processes and on coordinated synthesizing/destroying enzymatic activities, catalyzed by enzymes whose catalytic and structural properties are still matter of investigation.Alteration of flavin homeostasis has been recently correlated to human pathological conditions, such as neuromuscular disorders and cancer, and therefore we propose here protocols useful to detect metabolic processes involved in FAD forming and destroying.Our protocols exploit the chemical-structural differences between riboflavin, FMN , and FAD , which are responsible for differences in the spectroscopic properties (mainly fluorescence) of the two cofactors (FMN and FAD); therefore, in our opinion, when applicable measurements of fluorescence changes in continuo represent the elective techniques to follow FAD synthesis and degradation. Thus, after procedures able to calibrate flavin concentrations (Subheading 3.1), we describe simple continuous and rapid procedures, based on the peculiar optical properties of free flavins, useful to determine the rate of cofactor metabolism catalyzed by either recombinant enzymes or natural enzymes present in cellular lysates/subfractions (Subheading 3.2).Fluorescence properties of free flavins can also be useful in analytical determinations of the three molecular flavin forms, based on HPLC separation, with a quite high sensitivity. Assaying at different incubation times the molecular composition of the reaction mixture is a discontinuous experimental approach to measure the rate of FAD synthesis/degradation catalyzed by cell lysates or recombinant FAD synthase (Subheading 3.3). Continuous and discontinuous approaches can, when necessary, be performed in parallel.
978-1-0716-1285-9
978-1-0716-1286-6
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11586/365823
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