Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) account for over 17 million death globally each year, including arterial thrombosis. Platelets are key components in the pathogenesis of this disease and modulating their activity is an effective strategy to treat such thrombotic events. Cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) isoenzyme is involved in platelet activation and is the main target of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and new selective inhibitor research. Inhibitors of general formula mofezolac-spacer-mofezolac (mof-spacer-mof) and mofezolac-spacer-arachidonic acid (mof-spacer-AA) were projected to investigate the possible cross-talk between the two monomers (Eallo and Ecat) forming the COX-1 homodimer. Mofezolac was chosen as either one or two moieties of these molecules being the known most potent and selective COX-1 inhibitor and administrated to humans as Disopain™, then arachidonic acid (AA) was used to develop molecules bearing, in the same compound, in addition to the inhibitor moiety (mofezolac) also the natural COX substrate. Depending on the nature of the spacer, COX-1 and COX-2 activity was differently inhibited by mof-spacer-mof set with a preferential COX-1 inhibition. The highest COX-1 selectivity was exhibited by the compound in which the spacer was the benzidine [N,N’-(biphenyl-4,4′-di-yl)bis (2-[3,4-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)isoxazol-5-yl]acetamide) (15): COX-1 IC50 = 0.08 μM, COX-2 IC50 > 50 μM, Selectivity Index (SI) > 625]. In the case of mof-spacer-AA set, the COX inhibitory potency and also the isoform preference changed. (5Z, 8Z, 11Z, 14Z)-N-(4-{2-[3,4-Bis(4-methoxyphenyl)isoxazol-5-yl]acetamido}butyl)icosa-5,8,11,14-tetraenamide (19) and (5Z, 8Z, 11Z, 14Z)-N-(4’-{2-[3,4-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)isoxazol-5-yl]acetamido}-[1,1′-biphenyl]-4-yl)icosa-5,8,11,14-tetraenamide (21), in which the spacer is the 1,2-diaminobutane or benzidine, respectively, selectively inhibited the COX-2, whereas when the spacer is the 1,4-phenylendiamine [(5Z, 8Z, 11Z, 14Z)-N-(4-{2-[3,4-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)isoxazol-5-yl]acetamido}phenyl)icosa-5,8,11,14-tetraenamide) (20) the COX preference is COX-1 (COX-1 IC50 = 0.05 μM, COX-2 IC50 > 50 μM, with a COX-1 selectivity > 1000). Molecular modelling by using FLAP algorithm shows fundamental interactions of the novel compounds at the entry channel of COX and inside its catalytic cavity. The effect of these mof-spacer-mof and mof-spacer-AA in inhibiting in vitro free arachidonic acid-induced platelet aggregation was also determined. A positive profile of hemocompatibility in relation to their influence on the blood coagulation cascade and erythrocyte toxicity was observed. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity safety were also found for these two novel sets of compounds.

An attempt to chemically state the cross-talk between monomers of COX homodimers by double/hybrid inhibitors mofezolac-spacer-mofezolac and mofezolac-spacer-arachidonic acid

Perrone M. G.;Miciaccia M.;Vitale P.;Ferorelli S.;Scilimati A.
2021

Abstract

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) account for over 17 million death globally each year, including arterial thrombosis. Platelets are key components in the pathogenesis of this disease and modulating their activity is an effective strategy to treat such thrombotic events. Cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) isoenzyme is involved in platelet activation and is the main target of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and new selective inhibitor research. Inhibitors of general formula mofezolac-spacer-mofezolac (mof-spacer-mof) and mofezolac-spacer-arachidonic acid (mof-spacer-AA) were projected to investigate the possible cross-talk between the two monomers (Eallo and Ecat) forming the COX-1 homodimer. Mofezolac was chosen as either one or two moieties of these molecules being the known most potent and selective COX-1 inhibitor and administrated to humans as Disopain™, then arachidonic acid (AA) was used to develop molecules bearing, in the same compound, in addition to the inhibitor moiety (mofezolac) also the natural COX substrate. Depending on the nature of the spacer, COX-1 and COX-2 activity was differently inhibited by mof-spacer-mof set with a preferential COX-1 inhibition. The highest COX-1 selectivity was exhibited by the compound in which the spacer was the benzidine [N,N’-(biphenyl-4,4′-di-yl)bis (2-[3,4-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)isoxazol-5-yl]acetamide) (15): COX-1 IC50 = 0.08 μM, COX-2 IC50 > 50 μM, Selectivity Index (SI) > 625]. In the case of mof-spacer-AA set, the COX inhibitory potency and also the isoform preference changed. (5Z, 8Z, 11Z, 14Z)-N-(4-{2-[3,4-Bis(4-methoxyphenyl)isoxazol-5-yl]acetamido}butyl)icosa-5,8,11,14-tetraenamide (19) and (5Z, 8Z, 11Z, 14Z)-N-(4’-{2-[3,4-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)isoxazol-5-yl]acetamido}-[1,1′-biphenyl]-4-yl)icosa-5,8,11,14-tetraenamide (21), in which the spacer is the 1,2-diaminobutane or benzidine, respectively, selectively inhibited the COX-2, whereas when the spacer is the 1,4-phenylendiamine [(5Z, 8Z, 11Z, 14Z)-N-(4-{2-[3,4-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)isoxazol-5-yl]acetamido}phenyl)icosa-5,8,11,14-tetraenamide) (20) the COX preference is COX-1 (COX-1 IC50 = 0.05 μM, COX-2 IC50 > 50 μM, with a COX-1 selectivity > 1000). Molecular modelling by using FLAP algorithm shows fundamental interactions of the novel compounds at the entry channel of COX and inside its catalytic cavity. The effect of these mof-spacer-mof and mof-spacer-AA in inhibiting in vitro free arachidonic acid-induced platelet aggregation was also determined. A positive profile of hemocompatibility in relation to their influence on the blood coagulation cascade and erythrocyte toxicity was observed. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity safety were also found for these two novel sets of compounds.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11586/344001
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