In past and recent times the anthropic pressure strongly influenced the dynamic of forest ecosystems in Europe and led to a drastic decrease of forest cover and distribution mainly in unmanaged areas. The term “urban and community forests” refers to the trees and forests found in urbanized settings, in the center of cities and towns, in suburbs and rural ommunities, and at the edge of wild lands. Trees in the urban environment are subjected to a number of stresses which are very different from those suffered by trees in typical rural conditions. Biodiversity has been reduced in urban areas through ecosystem destruction, degradation, and fragmentation of remaining ecosystems. Recent investigation reveals that urban areas can contain relatively high levels of biodiversity. Important percentages of species found in the surrounding natural habitat, including endangered species, have been found in the urban forest. The relationship between silvicultural activities and decline of fungal communities in forest ecosystems has been highlighted by scientists. This abstract refers to investigation carried out in forest ecosystems that fall into the Oriented Nature Reserve “Pizzo Manolfo, Raffo Rosso and Crocetta Trippatore” that fall on the mountains overlooking the town of Palermo. The main forest types in this area are: a) reforestation with Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh; b) reforestation with Pinus halepensis Miller and P. pinea L. and, c) reforestation with elements of natural vegetation. Two plots size 200 m2 (10 m × 20 m) were delimited in each forest types, in one of which silvicultural practices were interrupted. 83 macromycetes collected over three years were listed and recorded in the plots as follow: 1) reforestation with E. camaldulensis (10 taxa in plots subjected to silvicultural practices and 11 taxa in plots not subjected to silvicultural practices); 2) reforestation with P. halepensis and P. pinea (9 taxa in plots subjected to silvicultural practices and 5 taxa in plots not subjected to silvicultural practices); 3) reforestation with elements of natural vegetation (29 taxa in plots subjected to silvicultural practices and 8 taxa in plots not subjected to silvicultural practices). We also collected fungi in the surroundings of each plots and the number of species recorded was 37, 28 and, 15 taxa. On the basis of the data processing it is to be noted that the number of ectomyorrhizal fungi is low and below the threshold of 20% while more numerous are saprotrophs Sh, Pn(Sh), Sh(Pn), St, sensu Arnolds (7). Besides saprotrophs on wood are prevalent in plots not subjected to silvicultural practices. This confirms the need to prevent the removal of biomass in forest ecosystems in order to maintain wood-inhabiting fungi species which represent a highly species rich and ecologically important organism group in natural forests. Forest ecosystems seemingly trivial such as reforestation of conifers continue to devote significant findings. This is the case of Mycena pseudoinclinata A.H. Sm., recently reported for the first time in Italy, whose distribution was limited to France, Switzerland, China and, United States. Besides, Ceriporia griseoviolascens M. Pieri & B. Riv (Polyporaceae s.l.) was collected in decaying stumps of P. pinea. The stone pine wood is a new host for this species previously reported only on Salix sp. and Populus nigra L. in France and on Arbutus unedo L. in Sardinia.
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