The constant increase in seafood consumption worldwide has led to a parallel growth of the incidence of products obtained by aquaculture on the market, but also of the fraudulent commercialization of farmed products as wild-type ones. A careful characterization of the lipid component of seafood products based on chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques has been reported as a promising approach to reliably differentiate farmed from wild-type products. In this context, a fast method based on Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART) coupled to High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HAMS) based on a single stage Orbitrap mass analyzer, integrated by Principal Component Analysis (PCA), was developed in the present study and applied to scout for spectral features useful to discriminate wild-type from farmed salmon of Salmo solar species. In particular, normalized intensities obtained for the 30 most intense signals (all referred to fatty acids, FA) detected in negative ion DART-HRMS spectra of the lipid extracts of salmon fillets [26 wild-type from Canada, 74 farmed from Canada (25), Norway (25) and Chile (24)] were considered as the variables for PCA. The scatterplot referred to the first two principal components showed a clear distinction between wild-type and farmed salmon, which gathered as a unique cluster, despite the remarkable differences in their geographical origin. In accordance with previous studies based on more complex and time-demanding analytical approaches, three saturated (14:0, 16:0 and 18:0) FA, along with unsaturated ones having 20 or 22 carbon atoms, were found as the main discriminating variables for wild-type salmons, whereas FA with compositions 18:1, 18:2, 18:3 and several oxidized forms arising from them were found to have a significantly higher incidence in farmed salmon. The method was further validated by Discriminant Analysis (DA) performed on the same dataset used for PCA integrated by data obtained from 6 commercial samples, putatively referred to farmed Norwegian salmon. Results showed that 100% of the latter were correctly classified as farmed type. Relative abundances of DART-HRMS signals related to specific FA appear then very promising for the differentiation of wild-type salmon from farmed ones, a very relevant issue in the context of consumers' protection from seafood frauds.

Assessing fish authenticity by direct analysis in real time-high resolution mass spectrometry and multivariate analysis: discrimination between wild-type and farmed salmon

Fiorino, Giuseppina M.;Losito, Ilario;
2019-01-01

Abstract

The constant increase in seafood consumption worldwide has led to a parallel growth of the incidence of products obtained by aquaculture on the market, but also of the fraudulent commercialization of farmed products as wild-type ones. A careful characterization of the lipid component of seafood products based on chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques has been reported as a promising approach to reliably differentiate farmed from wild-type products. In this context, a fast method based on Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART) coupled to High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HAMS) based on a single stage Orbitrap mass analyzer, integrated by Principal Component Analysis (PCA), was developed in the present study and applied to scout for spectral features useful to discriminate wild-type from farmed salmon of Salmo solar species. In particular, normalized intensities obtained for the 30 most intense signals (all referred to fatty acids, FA) detected in negative ion DART-HRMS spectra of the lipid extracts of salmon fillets [26 wild-type from Canada, 74 farmed from Canada (25), Norway (25) and Chile (24)] were considered as the variables for PCA. The scatterplot referred to the first two principal components showed a clear distinction between wild-type and farmed salmon, which gathered as a unique cluster, despite the remarkable differences in their geographical origin. In accordance with previous studies based on more complex and time-demanding analytical approaches, three saturated (14:0, 16:0 and 18:0) FA, along with unsaturated ones having 20 or 22 carbon atoms, were found as the main discriminating variables for wild-type salmons, whereas FA with compositions 18:1, 18:2, 18:3 and several oxidized forms arising from them were found to have a significantly higher incidence in farmed salmon. The method was further validated by Discriminant Analysis (DA) performed on the same dataset used for PCA integrated by data obtained from 6 commercial samples, putatively referred to farmed Norwegian salmon. Results showed that 100% of the latter were correctly classified as farmed type. Relative abundances of DART-HRMS signals related to specific FA appear then very promising for the differentiation of wild-type salmon from farmed ones, a very relevant issue in the context of consumers' protection from seafood frauds.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11586/224848
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