Background: Mesenchymal/stromal stem cells (MSCs) are favorably regarded in anti-cancer cytotherapies for their spontaneous chemotaxis toward inflammatory and tumor environments associated with an intrinsic cytotoxicity against tumor cells. Placenta-derived or TRAIL-engineered adipose MSCs have been shown to exert anti-Tumor activity in both in-vitro and in-vivo models of multiple myeloma (MM) while TRAIL-Transduced umbilical cord (UC)-MSCs appear efficient inducers of apoptosis in a few solid tumors. However, apoptosis is not selective for cancer cells since specific TRAIL receptors are also expressed by a number of normal cells. To overcome this drawback, we propose to transduce UC-MSCs with a bicistronic vector including the TRAIL sequence under the control of IL-6 promoter (pIL6) whose transcriptional activation is promoted by the MM milieu. Methods: UC-MSCs were transduced with a bicistronic retroviral vector (pMIGR1) encoding for green fluorescent protein (GFP) and modified to include the pIL6 sequence upstream of the full-length human TRAIL cDNA. TRAIL expression after stimulation with U-266 cell conditioned medium, or IL-1α/IL-1β, was evaluated by flow cytometry, confocal microscopy, real-Time PCR, western blot analysis, and ELISA. Apoptosis in MM cells was assayed by Annexin V staining and by caspase-8 activation. The cytotoxic effect of pIL6-TRAIL+-GFP+-UC-MSCs on MM growth was evaluated in SCID mice by bioluminescence and ex vivo by caspase-3 activation and X-ray imaging. Statistical analyses were performed by Student's t test, ANOVA, and logrank test for survival curves. Results: pIL6-TRAIL+-GFP+-UC-MSCs significantly expressed TRAIL after stimulation by either conditioned medium or by IL-1α/IL-1β, and induced apoptosis in U-266 cells. Moreover, when systemically injected in SCID mice intratibially xenografted with U-266, those cells underwent within MM tibia lesions and significantly reduced the tumor burden by specific induction of apoptosis in MM cells as revealed by caspase-3 activation. Conclusions: Our tumor microenvironment-sensitive model of anti-MM cytotherapy is regulated by the axis pIL6/IL-1α/IL-1β and appears suitable for further preclinical investigation not only in myeloma bone disease in which UC-MSCs would even participate to bone healing as described, but also in other osteotropic tumors whose milieu is enriched of cytokines triggering the pIL6.

PIL6-TRAIL-engineered umbilical cord mesenchymal/stromal stem cells are highly cytotoxic for myeloma cells both in vitro and in vivo

Cafforio, Paola
;
Viggiano, Luigi;Mannavola, Francesco;Pellè, Eleonora;Caporusso, Concetta;Maiorano, Eugenio;Felici, Claudia;Silvestris, Francesco
2017

Abstract

Background: Mesenchymal/stromal stem cells (MSCs) are favorably regarded in anti-cancer cytotherapies for their spontaneous chemotaxis toward inflammatory and tumor environments associated with an intrinsic cytotoxicity against tumor cells. Placenta-derived or TRAIL-engineered adipose MSCs have been shown to exert anti-Tumor activity in both in-vitro and in-vivo models of multiple myeloma (MM) while TRAIL-Transduced umbilical cord (UC)-MSCs appear efficient inducers of apoptosis in a few solid tumors. However, apoptosis is not selective for cancer cells since specific TRAIL receptors are also expressed by a number of normal cells. To overcome this drawback, we propose to transduce UC-MSCs with a bicistronic vector including the TRAIL sequence under the control of IL-6 promoter (pIL6) whose transcriptional activation is promoted by the MM milieu. Methods: UC-MSCs were transduced with a bicistronic retroviral vector (pMIGR1) encoding for green fluorescent protein (GFP) and modified to include the pIL6 sequence upstream of the full-length human TRAIL cDNA. TRAIL expression after stimulation with U-266 cell conditioned medium, or IL-1α/IL-1β, was evaluated by flow cytometry, confocal microscopy, real-Time PCR, western blot analysis, and ELISA. Apoptosis in MM cells was assayed by Annexin V staining and by caspase-8 activation. The cytotoxic effect of pIL6-TRAIL+-GFP+-UC-MSCs on MM growth was evaluated in SCID mice by bioluminescence and ex vivo by caspase-3 activation and X-ray imaging. Statistical analyses were performed by Student's t test, ANOVA, and logrank test for survival curves. Results: pIL6-TRAIL+-GFP+-UC-MSCs significantly expressed TRAIL after stimulation by either conditioned medium or by IL-1α/IL-1β, and induced apoptosis in U-266 cells. Moreover, when systemically injected in SCID mice intratibially xenografted with U-266, those cells underwent within MM tibia lesions and significantly reduced the tumor burden by specific induction of apoptosis in MM cells as revealed by caspase-3 activation. Conclusions: Our tumor microenvironment-sensitive model of anti-MM cytotherapy is regulated by the axis pIL6/IL-1α/IL-1β and appears suitable for further preclinical investigation not only in myeloma bone disease in which UC-MSCs would even participate to bone healing as described, but also in other osteotropic tumors whose milieu is enriched of cytokines triggering the pIL6.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11586/203219
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