Breast milk is a complex fluid evolutionarily adapted to satisfy the nutritional requirements of growing infants. In addition, milk biochemical and immunological components protect newborns against infective agents in the new environment. Human milk oligosaccharides, the third most abundant component of breast milk, are believed to modulate the microbiota composition, thus influencing a wide range of physiological processes of the infant. Human milk also contains a number of other bioactive compounds, the functional role of which has not yet been clearly elucidated. In this scenario, NMR-based metabolic profiling can provide a rapid characterisation of breast milk composition, thus allowing a better understanding of its nutritional properties.
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