Data on reptile analgesia are scarce for NSAIDs (non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) and opioids, and almost completely lacking in sea turtles, even though emergencies requiring correct pain management are very frequent in their rehabilitative medicine, and so dosage regimens extrapolated from other species involve risks of clinical failure and damage to the animals. We describe the pharmacokinetic behavior of meloxicam in the loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta). We chose meloxicam because of its selective anti-COX2 (cyclooxygenase-2) activity, and lesser adverse side effects. Because there are no data on the capacity of turtles to tolerate NSAIDs, we chose a dose of 0.1 mg/kg of meloxicam. Plasma concentrations of meloxicam were unexpectedly low both for intravenous (IV) (maximum concentration Cmax=0.04±0.02 μg/mL) and intramuscular (IM) (Cmax=0.07±0.09 μg/mL) administration. A double peak phenomenon occurred after both IV (time for peak concentration Tmax2=10.33±10.89 h) and IM (Tmax2=1.17±0.75 h). The second peak after IM injection was premature, so that some difficulty and delay in absorption appears to be an appropriate explanation. Furthermore, area under the curve (AUC0-inf) after both IV (0.30±0.29) and IM (0.10±0.03), and therefore systemic bioavailability (F) (31.82±28.24%), appeared particularly limited. Terminal elimination slope (λz) and mean residence time (MRT) indicated fast elimination after IM dosing; as a consequence, plasma concentrations dropped below analytical limits in 8 h. Considering that IM is the favored route of administration of drugs in rescue centers, it is unlikely that meloxicam at 0.1 mg/kg is an appropriate choice, particularly in long-term pain-management protocols.
|Titolo:||Pharmacokinetic Behavior of Meloxicam in Loggerhead Sea Turtles (Caretta Caretta) after Intramuscular and Intravenous Administration|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2015|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|
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