Evidence-based, standard antibiotic therapy for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) caused by carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) is a relevant unmet clinical need in the intensive care unit (ICU). We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of first-line therapy with old and novel CRAB active antibiotics in monomicrobial VAP caused by CRAB. A prospective, observational study was performed in a mixed non-COVID-19 ICU. The primary outcome measure was clinical failure upon first-line targeted therapy. Features independently influencing failure occurrence were also investigated via Cox proportional multivariable analysis. To account for the imbalance in antibiotic treatment allocation, a propensity score analysis with an inverse probability treatment weighting approach was adopted. Of the 90 enrolled patients, 34 (38%) experienced clinical failure. Compared to patients who experienced a clinical resolution of VAP, those who had clinical failure were of an older age (median age 71 (IQR 64–78) vs. 62 (IQR 52–69) years), and showed greater burden of comorbidities (median Charlson comorbidity index 8 (IQR 6–8) vs. 4 (IQR 2–6)), higher frequency of immunodepression (44% vs. 21%), and greater clinical severity at VAP onset (median SOFA score 10 (IQR 9–11) vs. 9 (IQR 7–11)). Lower rates of use of fast molecular diagnostics for nosocomial pneumonia (8.8% vs. 30.3%) and of timely CRAB active therapy administration (65% vs. 89%), and higher rates of colistin-based targeted therapy (71% vs. 46%) were also observed in patients who failed first-line therapy. Overall, CRAB active iv regimens were colistin-based in 50 patients and cefiderocol-based in 40 patients, both always combined with inhaled colistin. According to the backbone agent of first-line regimens, clinical failure was lower in the cefiderocol group, compared to that in the colistin group (25% vs. 48%, respectively). In multivariable Cox regression analysis, the burden of comorbid conditions independently predicted clinical failure occurrence (Charlson index aHR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.04–1.42, p = 0.01), while timely targeted antibiotic treatment (aHR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.19–0.84, p = 0.01) and cefiderocol-based first-line regimens (aHR = 0.38, 95% CI = 0.17–0.85, p = 0.02) strongly reduced failure risk. In patients with VAP caused by CRAB, timely active therapy improves infection outcomes and cefiderocol holds promise as a first-line therapeutic option.

Effectiveness of First-Line Therapy with Old and Novel Antibiotics in Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia Caused by Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii: A Real Life, Prospective, Observational, Single-Center Study

Stufano, Monica;Bavaro, Davide Fiore;Diella, Lucia;Belati, Alessandra;Stolfa, Stefania;Romanelli, Federica;Di Mussi, Rosa;Murgolo, Francesco;Loconsole, Daniela;Chironna, Maria;Mosca, Adriana;Montagna, Maria Teresa;Saracino, Annalisa;Grasso, Salvatore
2023-01-01

Abstract

Evidence-based, standard antibiotic therapy for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) caused by carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) is a relevant unmet clinical need in the intensive care unit (ICU). We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of first-line therapy with old and novel CRAB active antibiotics in monomicrobial VAP caused by CRAB. A prospective, observational study was performed in a mixed non-COVID-19 ICU. The primary outcome measure was clinical failure upon first-line targeted therapy. Features independently influencing failure occurrence were also investigated via Cox proportional multivariable analysis. To account for the imbalance in antibiotic treatment allocation, a propensity score analysis with an inverse probability treatment weighting approach was adopted. Of the 90 enrolled patients, 34 (38%) experienced clinical failure. Compared to patients who experienced a clinical resolution of VAP, those who had clinical failure were of an older age (median age 71 (IQR 64–78) vs. 62 (IQR 52–69) years), and showed greater burden of comorbidities (median Charlson comorbidity index 8 (IQR 6–8) vs. 4 (IQR 2–6)), higher frequency of immunodepression (44% vs. 21%), and greater clinical severity at VAP onset (median SOFA score 10 (IQR 9–11) vs. 9 (IQR 7–11)). Lower rates of use of fast molecular diagnostics for nosocomial pneumonia (8.8% vs. 30.3%) and of timely CRAB active therapy administration (65% vs. 89%), and higher rates of colistin-based targeted therapy (71% vs. 46%) were also observed in patients who failed first-line therapy. Overall, CRAB active iv regimens were colistin-based in 50 patients and cefiderocol-based in 40 patients, both always combined with inhaled colistin. According to the backbone agent of first-line regimens, clinical failure was lower in the cefiderocol group, compared to that in the colistin group (25% vs. 48%, respectively). In multivariable Cox regression analysis, the burden of comorbid conditions independently predicted clinical failure occurrence (Charlson index aHR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.04–1.42, p = 0.01), while timely targeted antibiotic treatment (aHR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.19–0.84, p = 0.01) and cefiderocol-based first-line regimens (aHR = 0.38, 95% CI = 0.17–0.85, p = 0.02) strongly reduced failure risk. In patients with VAP caused by CRAB, timely active therapy improves infection outcomes and cefiderocol holds promise as a first-line therapeutic option.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11586/436080
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