Background and objectives. Long-term proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use is frequently encountered in primary care. Its effect on micronutrient absorption is known, as vitamin B12, calcium or vitamin D insufficiency may occur in such patients. Materials and methods. We recruited patients using a PPI (pantoprazole) for >12 months. The control group was represented by subjects attending the general practitioner not taking any PPI in the last 12 months. We excluded subjects using nutritional supplements or with diseases interfering with micronutrient blood levels. All subjects underwent blood sampling with full blood count, iron, ferritin, vitamin D, calcium, sodium, potassium, phosphate, zinc and folate. Results. We recruited 66 subjects: 30 in the PPI group and 36 in the control group. Long-term pantoprazole users had lower red blood cell count but similar hemoglobin. We did not find any significant difference in blood iron, ferritin, vitamin B12 and folate. Vitamin D deficit was observed more frequently in the PPI group (100%) than in controls (30%, p < 0.001), with blood levels lower in pantoprazole consumers. No differences in calcium, sodium and magnesium were observed. Pantoprazole users had lower phosphate levels than controls. Finally, a non-significant trend for zinc deficiency was found in PPI users. Conclusions. Our study confirms that chronic PPI users may encounter alterations in some micronutrients involved in bone mineral homeostasis. The effect on zinc levels deserves further investigation.

Effect of Long-Term Proton Pump Inhibitor Use on Blood Vitamins and Minerals: A Primary Care Setting Study

Losurdo G.;Celiberto F.;Barone M.;Di Leo A.
2023-01-01

Abstract

Background and objectives. Long-term proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use is frequently encountered in primary care. Its effect on micronutrient absorption is known, as vitamin B12, calcium or vitamin D insufficiency may occur in such patients. Materials and methods. We recruited patients using a PPI (pantoprazole) for >12 months. The control group was represented by subjects attending the general practitioner not taking any PPI in the last 12 months. We excluded subjects using nutritional supplements or with diseases interfering with micronutrient blood levels. All subjects underwent blood sampling with full blood count, iron, ferritin, vitamin D, calcium, sodium, potassium, phosphate, zinc and folate. Results. We recruited 66 subjects: 30 in the PPI group and 36 in the control group. Long-term pantoprazole users had lower red blood cell count but similar hemoglobin. We did not find any significant difference in blood iron, ferritin, vitamin B12 and folate. Vitamin D deficit was observed more frequently in the PPI group (100%) than in controls (30%, p < 0.001), with blood levels lower in pantoprazole consumers. No differences in calcium, sodium and magnesium were observed. Pantoprazole users had lower phosphate levels than controls. Finally, a non-significant trend for zinc deficiency was found in PPI users. Conclusions. Our study confirms that chronic PPI users may encounter alterations in some micronutrients involved in bone mineral homeostasis. The effect on zinc levels deserves further investigation.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11586/430925
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