This study focuses on interacting with insects and their ectosymbiont (lato sensu) microorganisms for environmentally safe plant production and protection. Some cases help compare ectosymbiont microorganisms that are insect-borne, -driven, or -spread relevant to endosymbionts' behaviour. Ectosymbiotic bacteria can interact with insects by allowing them to improve the value of their pabula. In addition, some bacteria are essential for creating ecological niches that can host the development of pests. Insect-borne plant pathogens include bacteria, viruses, and fungi. These pathogens interact with their vectors to enhance reciprocal fitness. Knowing vector-phoront interaction could considerably increase chances for outbreak management, notably when sustained by quarantine vector ectosymbiont pathogens, such as the actual Xylella fastidiosa Mediterranean invasion episode. Insect pathogenic viruses have a close evolutionary relationship with their hosts, also being highly specific and obligate parasites. Sixteen virus families have been reported to infect insects and may be involved in the biological control of specific pests, including some economic weevils. Insects and fungi are among the most widespread organisms in nature and interact with each other, establishing symbiotic relationships ranging from mutualism to antagonism. The associations can influence the extent to which interacting organisms can exert their effects on plants and the proper management practices. Sustainable pest management also relies on entomopathogenic fungi; research on these species starts from their isolation from insect carcasses, followed by identification using conventional light or electron microscopy techniques. Thanks to the development of omics sciences, it is possible to identify entomopathogenic fungi with evolutionary histories that are less-shared with the target insect and can be proposed as pest antagonists. Many interesting omics can help detect the presence of entomopathogens in different natural matrices, such as soil or plants. The same techniques will help localize ectosymbionts, localization of recesses, or specialized morphological adaptation, greatly supporting the robust interpretation of the symbiont role. The manipulation and modulation of ectosymbionts could be a more promising way to counteract pests and borne pathogens, mitigating the impact of formulates and reducing food insecurity due to the lesser impact of direct damage and diseases. The promise has a preventive intent for more manageable and broader implications for pests, comparing what we can obtain using simpler, less-specific techniques and a less comprehensive approach to Integrated Pest Management (IPM).

"Ectomosphere": Insects and Microorganism Interactions

Picciotti, Ugo;Finetti-Sialer, Mariella Matilde;Ippolito, Antonio;Mincuzzi, Annamaria;Pazzani, Carlo;Scrascia, Maria;Valenzano, Domenico;Garganese, Francesca;Porcelli, Francesco
2023-01-01

Abstract

This study focuses on interacting with insects and their ectosymbiont (lato sensu) microorganisms for environmentally safe plant production and protection. Some cases help compare ectosymbiont microorganisms that are insect-borne, -driven, or -spread relevant to endosymbionts' behaviour. Ectosymbiotic bacteria can interact with insects by allowing them to improve the value of their pabula. In addition, some bacteria are essential for creating ecological niches that can host the development of pests. Insect-borne plant pathogens include bacteria, viruses, and fungi. These pathogens interact with their vectors to enhance reciprocal fitness. Knowing vector-phoront interaction could considerably increase chances for outbreak management, notably when sustained by quarantine vector ectosymbiont pathogens, such as the actual Xylella fastidiosa Mediterranean invasion episode. Insect pathogenic viruses have a close evolutionary relationship with their hosts, also being highly specific and obligate parasites. Sixteen virus families have been reported to infect insects and may be involved in the biological control of specific pests, including some economic weevils. Insects and fungi are among the most widespread organisms in nature and interact with each other, establishing symbiotic relationships ranging from mutualism to antagonism. The associations can influence the extent to which interacting organisms can exert their effects on plants and the proper management practices. Sustainable pest management also relies on entomopathogenic fungi; research on these species starts from their isolation from insect carcasses, followed by identification using conventional light or electron microscopy techniques. Thanks to the development of omics sciences, it is possible to identify entomopathogenic fungi with evolutionary histories that are less-shared with the target insect and can be proposed as pest antagonists. Many interesting omics can help detect the presence of entomopathogens in different natural matrices, such as soil or plants. The same techniques will help localize ectosymbionts, localization of recesses, or specialized morphological adaptation, greatly supporting the robust interpretation of the symbiont role. The manipulation and modulation of ectosymbionts could be a more promising way to counteract pests and borne pathogens, mitigating the impact of formulates and reducing food insecurity due to the lesser impact of direct damage and diseases. The promise has a preventive intent for more manageable and broader implications for pests, comparing what we can obtain using simpler, less-specific techniques and a less comprehensive approach to Integrated Pest Management (IPM).
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11586/429365
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