first_pagesettingsOrder Article Reprints Open AccessReview Updating the Clinical Application of Blood Biomarkers and Their Algorithms in the Diagnosis and Surveillance of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Critical Review by Endrit Shahini 1,*ORCID,Giuseppe Pasculli 2,Antonio Giovanni Solimando 3ORCID,Claudio Tiribelli 4ORCID,Raffaele Cozzolongo 1,† andGianluigi Giannelli 5,† 1 Gastroenterology Unit, National Institute of Gastroenterology-IRCCS “Saverio de Bellis”, Castellana Grotte, 70013 Bari, Italy 2 National Institute of Gastroenterology-IRCCS “Saverio de Bellis”, Castellana Grotte, 70013 Bari, Italy 3 Guido Baccelli Unit of Internal Medicine, Department of Precision and Regenerative Medicine and Ionian Area-(DiMePRe-J), University of Bari “A. Moro”, 70121 Bari, Italy 4 Scientific Director, Italian Liver Foundation, 34149 Trieste, Italy 5 Scientific Director, National Institute of Gastroenterology-IRCCS “Saverio de Bellis”, Castellana Grotte, 70013 Bari, Italy * Author to whom correspondence should be addressed. † These authors contributed equally to this work. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(5), 4286; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24054286 Received: 30 January 2023 / Revised: 14 February 2023 / Accepted: 17 February 2023 / Published: 21 February 2023 (This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges and Future Trends of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Immunotherapy) Download Browse Figures Review Reports Versions Notes Abstract The most common primary liver cancer is hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and its mortality rate is increasing globally. The overall 5-year survival of patients with liver cancer is currently 10–20%. Moreover, because early diagnosis can significantly improve prognosis, which is highly correlated with tumor stage, early detection of HCC is critical. International guidelines advise using α-FP biomarker with/without ultrasonography for HCC surveillance in patients with advanced liver disease. However, traditional biomarkers are sub-optimal for risk stratification of HCC development in high-risk populations, early diagnosis, prognostication, and treatment response prediction. Since about 20% of HCCs do not produce α-FP due to its biological diversity, combining α-FP with novel biomarkers can enhance HCC detection sensitivity. There is a chance to offer promising cancer management methods in high-risk populations by utilizing HCC screening strategies derived from new tumor biomarkers and prognostic scores created by combining biomarkers with distinct clinical parameters. Despite numerous efforts to identify molecules as potential biomarkers, there is no single ideal marker in HCC. When combined with other clinical parameters, the detection of some biomarkers has higher sensitivity and specificity in comparison with a single biomarker. Therefore, newer biomarkers and models, such as the Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive fraction of Alpha-fetoprotein (α-FP), α-FP-L3, Des-γ-carboxy-prothrombin (DCP or PIVKA-II), and the GALAD score, are being used more frequently in the diagnosis and prognosis of HCC. Notably, the GALAD algorithm was effective in HCC prevention, particularly for cirrhotic patients, regardless of the cause of their liver disease. Although the role of these biomarkers in surveillance is still being researched, they may provide a more practical alternative to traditional imaging-based surveillance. Finally, looking for new diagnostic/surveillance tools may help improve patients’ survival. This review discusses the current roles of the most used biomarkers and prognostic scores that may aid in the clinical management of HCC patients.

Updating the Clinical Application of Blood Biomarkers and Their Algorithms in the Diagnosis and Surveillance of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Critical Review

Endrit Shahini;Giuseppe Pasculli;Antonio Giovanni Solimando;Gianluigi Giannelli
2023-01-01

Abstract

first_pagesettingsOrder Article Reprints Open AccessReview Updating the Clinical Application of Blood Biomarkers and Their Algorithms in the Diagnosis and Surveillance of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Critical Review by Endrit Shahini 1,*ORCID,Giuseppe Pasculli 2,Antonio Giovanni Solimando 3ORCID,Claudio Tiribelli 4ORCID,Raffaele Cozzolongo 1,† andGianluigi Giannelli 5,† 1 Gastroenterology Unit, National Institute of Gastroenterology-IRCCS “Saverio de Bellis”, Castellana Grotte, 70013 Bari, Italy 2 National Institute of Gastroenterology-IRCCS “Saverio de Bellis”, Castellana Grotte, 70013 Bari, Italy 3 Guido Baccelli Unit of Internal Medicine, Department of Precision and Regenerative Medicine and Ionian Area-(DiMePRe-J), University of Bari “A. Moro”, 70121 Bari, Italy 4 Scientific Director, Italian Liver Foundation, 34149 Trieste, Italy 5 Scientific Director, National Institute of Gastroenterology-IRCCS “Saverio de Bellis”, Castellana Grotte, 70013 Bari, Italy * Author to whom correspondence should be addressed. † These authors contributed equally to this work. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(5), 4286; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24054286 Received: 30 January 2023 / Revised: 14 February 2023 / Accepted: 17 February 2023 / Published: 21 February 2023 (This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges and Future Trends of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Immunotherapy) Download Browse Figures Review Reports Versions Notes Abstract The most common primary liver cancer is hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and its mortality rate is increasing globally. The overall 5-year survival of patients with liver cancer is currently 10–20%. Moreover, because early diagnosis can significantly improve prognosis, which is highly correlated with tumor stage, early detection of HCC is critical. International guidelines advise using α-FP biomarker with/without ultrasonography for HCC surveillance in patients with advanced liver disease. However, traditional biomarkers are sub-optimal for risk stratification of HCC development in high-risk populations, early diagnosis, prognostication, and treatment response prediction. Since about 20% of HCCs do not produce α-FP due to its biological diversity, combining α-FP with novel biomarkers can enhance HCC detection sensitivity. There is a chance to offer promising cancer management methods in high-risk populations by utilizing HCC screening strategies derived from new tumor biomarkers and prognostic scores created by combining biomarkers with distinct clinical parameters. Despite numerous efforts to identify molecules as potential biomarkers, there is no single ideal marker in HCC. When combined with other clinical parameters, the detection of some biomarkers has higher sensitivity and specificity in comparison with a single biomarker. Therefore, newer biomarkers and models, such as the Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive fraction of Alpha-fetoprotein (α-FP), α-FP-L3, Des-γ-carboxy-prothrombin (DCP or PIVKA-II), and the GALAD score, are being used more frequently in the diagnosis and prognosis of HCC. Notably, the GALAD algorithm was effective in HCC prevention, particularly for cirrhotic patients, regardless of the cause of their liver disease. Although the role of these biomarkers in surveillance is still being researched, they may provide a more practical alternative to traditional imaging-based surveillance. Finally, looking for new diagnostic/surveillance tools may help improve patients’ survival. This review discusses the current roles of the most used biomarkers and prognostic scores that may aid in the clinical management of HCC patients.
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11586/420035
 Attenzione

Attenzione! I dati visualizzati non sono stati sottoposti a validazione da parte dell'ateneo

Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 12
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 10
social impact