Multiple myeloma (MM) is the second most common hematological malignancy, and despite the introduction of innovative therapies, remains an incurable disease. Identifying early and minimally or non-invasive biomarkers for predicting clinical outcomes and therapeutic responses is an active field of investigation. Malignant plasma cells (PCs) reside in the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment (BMME) which comprises cells (e.g., tumour, immune, stromal cells), components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and vesicular and non-vesicular (soluble) molecules, all factors that support PCs’ survival and proliferation. The interaction between PCs and BM stromal cells (BMSCs), a hallmark of MM progression, is based not only on intercellular interactions but also on autocrine and paracrine circuits mediated by soluble or vesicular components. In fact, PCs and BMSCs secrete various cytokines, including angiogenic cytokines, essential for the formation of specialized niches called “osteoblastic and vascular niches”, thus supporting neovascularization and bone disease, vital processes that modulate the pathophysiological PCs–BMME interactions, and ultimately promoting disease progression. Here, we aim to discuss the roles of cytokines and growth factors in pathogenetic pathways in MM and as prognostic and predictive biomarkers. We also discuss the potential of targeted drugs that simultaneously block PCs’ proliferation and survival, PCs–BMSCs interactions and BMSCs activity, which may represent the future goal of MM therapy.

Pathways of Angiogenic and Inflammatory Cytokines in Multiple Myeloma: Role in Plasma Cell Clonal Expansion and Drug Resistance

Melaccio, Assunta;Reale, Antonia;Saltarella, Ilaria;Desantis, Vanessa;Lamanuzzi, Aurelia;Cicco, Sebastiano;Vacca, Angelo;Ria, Roberto
2022-01-01

Abstract

Multiple myeloma (MM) is the second most common hematological malignancy, and despite the introduction of innovative therapies, remains an incurable disease. Identifying early and minimally or non-invasive biomarkers for predicting clinical outcomes and therapeutic responses is an active field of investigation. Malignant plasma cells (PCs) reside in the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment (BMME) which comprises cells (e.g., tumour, immune, stromal cells), components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and vesicular and non-vesicular (soluble) molecules, all factors that support PCs’ survival and proliferation. The interaction between PCs and BM stromal cells (BMSCs), a hallmark of MM progression, is based not only on intercellular interactions but also on autocrine and paracrine circuits mediated by soluble or vesicular components. In fact, PCs and BMSCs secrete various cytokines, including angiogenic cytokines, essential for the formation of specialized niches called “osteoblastic and vascular niches”, thus supporting neovascularization and bone disease, vital processes that modulate the pathophysiological PCs–BMME interactions, and ultimately promoting disease progression. Here, we aim to discuss the roles of cytokines and growth factors in pathogenetic pathways in MM and as prognostic and predictive biomarkers. We also discuss the potential of targeted drugs that simultaneously block PCs’ proliferation and survival, PCs–BMSCs interactions and BMSCs activity, which may represent the future goal of MM therapy.
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11586/411872
 Attenzione

Attenzione! I dati visualizzati non sono stati sottoposti a validazione da parte dell'ateneo

Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus ND
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? ND
social impact