Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by the bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). TB treatment is based on the administration of three major antibiotics: isoniazid, rifampicin, and pyrazinamide. However, multi-drug resistant (MDR) Mtb strains are increasing around the world, thus, allowing TB to spread around the world. The stringent response is demonstrated by Mtb strains in order to survive under hostile circumstances, even including exposure to antibiotics. The stringent response is mediated by alarmones, which regulate bacterial replication, transcription and translation. Moreover, the Mtb cell wall contributes to the mechanism of antibiotic resistance along with efflux pump activation and biofilm formation. Immunity over the course of TB is managed by M1-macrophages and M2-macrophages, which regulate the immune response against Mtb infection, with the former exerting inflammatory reactions and the latter promoting an anti-inflammatory profile. T helper 1 cells via secretion of interferon (IFN)-gamma, play a protective role in the course of TB, while T regulatory cells secreting interleukin 10, are anti-inflammatory. Alternative therapeutic options against TB require further discussion. In view of the increasing number of MDR Mtb strains, attempts to replace antibiotics with natural and biological products have been object of intensive investigation. Therefore, in this review the anti-Mtb effects exerted by probiotics, polyphenols, antimicrobial peptides and IFN-gamma will be discussed. All the above cited compounds are endowed either with direct antibacterial activity or with anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating characteristics.

Antibiotic Resistance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Potential Use of Natural and Biological Products as Alternative Anti-Mycobacterial Agents

Arrigoni, Roberto
Resources
;
Ballini, Andrea
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Topi, Skender
Data Curation
;
Jirillo, Emilio
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
;
Santacroce, Luigi
Project Administration
2022-01-01

Abstract

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by the bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). TB treatment is based on the administration of three major antibiotics: isoniazid, rifampicin, and pyrazinamide. However, multi-drug resistant (MDR) Mtb strains are increasing around the world, thus, allowing TB to spread around the world. The stringent response is demonstrated by Mtb strains in order to survive under hostile circumstances, even including exposure to antibiotics. The stringent response is mediated by alarmones, which regulate bacterial replication, transcription and translation. Moreover, the Mtb cell wall contributes to the mechanism of antibiotic resistance along with efflux pump activation and biofilm formation. Immunity over the course of TB is managed by M1-macrophages and M2-macrophages, which regulate the immune response against Mtb infection, with the former exerting inflammatory reactions and the latter promoting an anti-inflammatory profile. T helper 1 cells via secretion of interferon (IFN)-gamma, play a protective role in the course of TB, while T regulatory cells secreting interleukin 10, are anti-inflammatory. Alternative therapeutic options against TB require further discussion. In view of the increasing number of MDR Mtb strains, attempts to replace antibiotics with natural and biological products have been object of intensive investigation. Therefore, in this review the anti-Mtb effects exerted by probiotics, polyphenols, antimicrobial peptides and IFN-gamma will be discussed. All the above cited compounds are endowed either with direct antibacterial activity or with anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating characteristics.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11586/410790
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