Bile acid (BA) species and the gut microbiota (GM) contribute to intestinal mucosa homeostasis. BAs shape the GM and, conversely, intestinal bacteria with bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity modulate the BA pool composition. The mutual interaction between BAs and intestinal microorganisms also influences mucosal barrier integrity, which is important for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) pathogenesis, prevention and therapy. High levels of secondary BAs are detrimental for the intestinal barrier and increase the intestinal inflammatory response and dysbiosis. Additionally, a lack of BSH-active bacteria plays a role in intestinal inflammation and BA dysmetabolism. Thus, BSH-competent bacteria in probiotic formulations are being actively studied in IBD. At the same time, studies exploring the modulation of the master regulator of BA homeostasis, the Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR), in intestinal inflammation and how this impacts the GM are gaining significant momentum. Overall, the choice of probiotic supplementation should be a peculiar issue of personalized medicine, considering not only the disease but also the specific BA and metabolic signatures of a given patient.

Bile Salt Hydrolase-Competent Probiotics in the Management of IBD: Unlocking the "Bile Acid Code"

Gadaleta, Raffaella Maria;Cariello, Marica;Crudele, Lucilla;Moschetta, Antonio
2022-01-01

Abstract

Bile acid (BA) species and the gut microbiota (GM) contribute to intestinal mucosa homeostasis. BAs shape the GM and, conversely, intestinal bacteria with bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity modulate the BA pool composition. The mutual interaction between BAs and intestinal microorganisms also influences mucosal barrier integrity, which is important for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) pathogenesis, prevention and therapy. High levels of secondary BAs are detrimental for the intestinal barrier and increase the intestinal inflammatory response and dysbiosis. Additionally, a lack of BSH-active bacteria plays a role in intestinal inflammation and BA dysmetabolism. Thus, BSH-competent bacteria in probiotic formulations are being actively studied in IBD. At the same time, studies exploring the modulation of the master regulator of BA homeostasis, the Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR), in intestinal inflammation and how this impacts the GM are gaining significant momentum. Overall, the choice of probiotic supplementation should be a peculiar issue of personalized medicine, considering not only the disease but also the specific BA and metabolic signatures of a given patient.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11586/409531
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