The dysregulation of the β-cell functional mass, which is a reduction in the number of β-cells and their ability to secure adequate insulin secretion, represents a key mechanistic factor leading to the onset of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Obesity is recognised as a leading cause of β-cell loss and dysfunction and a risk factor for T2D. The natural history of β-cell failure in obesity-induced T2D can be divided into three steps: (1) β-cell compensatory hyperplasia and insulin hypersecretion, (2) insulin secretory dysfunction, and (3) loss of β-cell mass. Adipose tissue (AT) secretes many hormones/cytokines (adipokines) and fatty acids that can directly influence β-cell function and viability. As this secretory pattern is altered in obese and diabetic patients, it is expected that the cross-talk between AT and pancreatic β-cells could drive the maintenance of the β-cell integrity under physiological conditions and contribute to the reduction in the β-cell functional mass in a dysmetabolic state. In the current review, we summarise the evidence of the ability of the AT secretome to influence each step of β-cell failure, and attempt to draw a timeline of the alterations in the adipokine secretion pattern in the transition from obesity to T2D that reflects the progressive deterioration of the β-cell functional mass.

Adipose Tissue Secretion Pattern Influences β-Cell Wellness in the Transition from Obesity to Type 2 Diabetes

Marrano N.;Borrelli A.;Calderoni I.;Siciliano E.;Giorgino F.;Natalicchio A.
2022-01-01

Abstract

The dysregulation of the β-cell functional mass, which is a reduction in the number of β-cells and their ability to secure adequate insulin secretion, represents a key mechanistic factor leading to the onset of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Obesity is recognised as a leading cause of β-cell loss and dysfunction and a risk factor for T2D. The natural history of β-cell failure in obesity-induced T2D can be divided into three steps: (1) β-cell compensatory hyperplasia and insulin hypersecretion, (2) insulin secretory dysfunction, and (3) loss of β-cell mass. Adipose tissue (AT) secretes many hormones/cytokines (adipokines) and fatty acids that can directly influence β-cell function and viability. As this secretory pattern is altered in obese and diabetic patients, it is expected that the cross-talk between AT and pancreatic β-cells could drive the maintenance of the β-cell integrity under physiological conditions and contribute to the reduction in the β-cell functional mass in a dysmetabolic state. In the current review, we summarise the evidence of the ability of the AT secretome to influence each step of β-cell failure, and attempt to draw a timeline of the alterations in the adipokine secretion pattern in the transition from obesity to T2D that reflects the progressive deterioration of the β-cell functional mass.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11586/406932
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