Obesity is a chronic disease caused by an excess of adipose tissue that may impair health by altering the functionality of various organs, including the lungs. Excessive deposition of fat in the abdominal area can lead to abnormal positioning of the diaphragm and consequent reduction in lung volume, leading to a heightened demand for ventilation and increased exposure to respiratory diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, and obstructive sleep apnoea. In addition to mechanical ventilatory constraints, excess fat and ectopic deposition in visceral depots can lead to adipose tissue dysfunction, which promotes metabolic disorders. An altered adipokine-secretion profile from dysfunctional adipose tissue in morbid obesity fosters systemic, low-grade inflammation, impairing pulmonary immune response and promoting airway hyperresponsiveness. A potential target of these adipokines could be the NLRP3 inflammasome, a critical component of the innate immune system, the harmful pro-inflammatory effect of which affects both adipose and lung tissue in obesity. In this review, we will investigate the crosstalk between adipose tissue and the lung in obesity, highlighting the main inflammatory mediators and novel therapeutic targets in preventing pulmonary dysfunction.

Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Pulmonary Dysfunction in Obesity

Giuseppe Palma;Valentina Annamaria Genchi;Fiorella Giordano;Cristina Caccioppoli;Rossella D'Oria;Nicola Marrano;Giuseppina Biondi;Francesco Giorgino;Sebastio Perrini
2022-01-01

Abstract

Obesity is a chronic disease caused by an excess of adipose tissue that may impair health by altering the functionality of various organs, including the lungs. Excessive deposition of fat in the abdominal area can lead to abnormal positioning of the diaphragm and consequent reduction in lung volume, leading to a heightened demand for ventilation and increased exposure to respiratory diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, and obstructive sleep apnoea. In addition to mechanical ventilatory constraints, excess fat and ectopic deposition in visceral depots can lead to adipose tissue dysfunction, which promotes metabolic disorders. An altered adipokine-secretion profile from dysfunctional adipose tissue in morbid obesity fosters systemic, low-grade inflammation, impairing pulmonary immune response and promoting airway hyperresponsiveness. A potential target of these adipokines could be the NLRP3 inflammasome, a critical component of the innate immune system, the harmful pro-inflammatory effect of which affects both adipose and lung tissue in obesity. In this review, we will investigate the crosstalk between adipose tissue and the lung in obesity, highlighting the main inflammatory mediators and novel therapeutic targets in preventing pulmonary dysfunction.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11586/406931
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