Herein, we report a combined strategy encompassing electrochemical and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) experiments to investigate self-assembled monolayer (SAM) conformational reorganization onto an electrode surface due to the application of an electrical field. In particular, 3-mercaptopriopionic acid SAM (3MPA SAM) modified gold electrodes are activated with a 1-ethyl-3- (3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide (EDC) and N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide (NHSS) (EDC-NHSS) mixture by shortening the activation time, from 2 h to 15/20 min, labelled as Protocol-A, -B and -C, respectively. This step, later followed by a deactivation process with ethanolamine (EA), plays a key role in the reaction yields (formation of N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-3-mercaptopropanamide, NMPA) but also in the conformational rearrangement observed during the application of the electrical field. This study aims at explaining the high performance (i.e., single-molecule detection at a large electrode interface) of bioelectronic devices, where the 3MPA-based SAM structure is pivotal in achieving extremely high sensing performance levels due to its interchain interaction. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) experiments performed in K4Fe(CN)6:K3Fe(CN)6 for 3MPA SAMs that are activated/deactivated show similar trends of anodic peak current (IA) over time, mainly related to the presence of interchain hydrogen bonds, driving the conformational rearrangements (tightening of SAMs structure) while applying an electrical field. In addition, XPS analysis allows correlation of the deactivation yield with electrochemical data (conformational rearrangements), identifying the best protocol in terms of high reaction yield, mainly related to the shorter reaction time, and not triggering any side reactions. Finally, Protocol-C’s SAM surface coverage, determined by CV in H2SO4 and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) in NaOH, was 1.29 * 1013 molecules cm2, being similar to the bioreceptor surface coverage in single-molecule detection at a large electrode interface.

Electrochemical and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Surface Characterization of Interchain-Driven Self-Assembled Monolayer (SAM) Reorganization

Angelo Tricase
Investigation
;
Nicoletta Ditaranto
Investigation
;
Eleonora Macchia
Supervision
;
Rosaria Anna Picca
Writing – Review & Editing
;
Davide Blasi
Investigation
;
Luisa Torsi
Supervision
;
Paolo Bollella
Writing – Review & Editing
2022

Abstract

Herein, we report a combined strategy encompassing electrochemical and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) experiments to investigate self-assembled monolayer (SAM) conformational reorganization onto an electrode surface due to the application of an electrical field. In particular, 3-mercaptopriopionic acid SAM (3MPA SAM) modified gold electrodes are activated with a 1-ethyl-3- (3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide (EDC) and N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide (NHSS) (EDC-NHSS) mixture by shortening the activation time, from 2 h to 15/20 min, labelled as Protocol-A, -B and -C, respectively. This step, later followed by a deactivation process with ethanolamine (EA), plays a key role in the reaction yields (formation of N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-3-mercaptopropanamide, NMPA) but also in the conformational rearrangement observed during the application of the electrical field. This study aims at explaining the high performance (i.e., single-molecule detection at a large electrode interface) of bioelectronic devices, where the 3MPA-based SAM structure is pivotal in achieving extremely high sensing performance levels due to its interchain interaction. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) experiments performed in K4Fe(CN)6:K3Fe(CN)6 for 3MPA SAMs that are activated/deactivated show similar trends of anodic peak current (IA) over time, mainly related to the presence of interchain hydrogen bonds, driving the conformational rearrangements (tightening of SAMs structure) while applying an electrical field. In addition, XPS analysis allows correlation of the deactivation yield with electrochemical data (conformational rearrangements), identifying the best protocol in terms of high reaction yield, mainly related to the shorter reaction time, and not triggering any side reactions. Finally, Protocol-C’s SAM surface coverage, determined by CV in H2SO4 and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) in NaOH, was 1.29 * 1013 molecules cm2, being similar to the bioreceptor surface coverage in single-molecule detection at a large electrode interface.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11586/387141
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