: ObjectiveTo investigate the association between Group-A streptococcal (GAS) infections and tic incidence among unaffected children with a family history of chronic tic disorders (CTD).MethodsIn a prospective cohort study, children with no history for tics aged 3 to 10 years with a first-degree relative with CTD were recruited from the European Multicentre Tics in Children Study (EMTICS) across 16 European centres. Presence of GAS infection was assessed using throat swabs, serum Anti-streptolysin O titres (ASOT) and Anti-DNAse B (ADB) titres blinded to clinical status. GAS exposure was defined using four different definitions based on these parameters. Cox regression analyses with time-varying GAS exposure were conducted to examine the association of onset of tics and GAS exposure during follow-up. Sensitivity analyses were conducted using Cox regression and logistic regression analyses.ResultsA total of 260 children were recruited whilst one subject was found to have tic onsets before study entry and therefore was excluded. 61 children (23.6%) developed tics over an average follow-up period of 1 (SD 0.7) year. There was a strong association of sex and onset of tics, with girls having an approximately 60% lower risk of developing tics compared to boys (HR: 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.7). However, there was no statistical evidence to suggest an association of any of the four GAS exposure definitions with tic onset (GAS exposure definition 1: HR=0.310, 95% CI: 0.037-2.590; definition 2: HR=0.561, 95% CI: 0.219-1.436; definition 3: HR=0.853, 95% CI: 0.466-1.561; definition 4: HR=0.725, 95% CI: 0.384-1.370).ConclusionThese results do not suggest an association of GAS exposure and development of tics.Classification of EvidenceThis study provides Class I evidence that Group-A streptococcal exposure does not associate with the development of tics in children with first-degree relatives with chronic tic disorder.

Lack of Association of Group A Streptococcal Infections and Onset of Tics: European Multicenter Tics in Children Study

Buttiglione, Maura;
2022-01-01

Abstract

: ObjectiveTo investigate the association between Group-A streptococcal (GAS) infections and tic incidence among unaffected children with a family history of chronic tic disorders (CTD).MethodsIn a prospective cohort study, children with no history for tics aged 3 to 10 years with a first-degree relative with CTD were recruited from the European Multicentre Tics in Children Study (EMTICS) across 16 European centres. Presence of GAS infection was assessed using throat swabs, serum Anti-streptolysin O titres (ASOT) and Anti-DNAse B (ADB) titres blinded to clinical status. GAS exposure was defined using four different definitions based on these parameters. Cox regression analyses with time-varying GAS exposure were conducted to examine the association of onset of tics and GAS exposure during follow-up. Sensitivity analyses were conducted using Cox regression and logistic regression analyses.ResultsA total of 260 children were recruited whilst one subject was found to have tic onsets before study entry and therefore was excluded. 61 children (23.6%) developed tics over an average follow-up period of 1 (SD 0.7) year. There was a strong association of sex and onset of tics, with girls having an approximately 60% lower risk of developing tics compared to boys (HR: 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.7). However, there was no statistical evidence to suggest an association of any of the four GAS exposure definitions with tic onset (GAS exposure definition 1: HR=0.310, 95% CI: 0.037-2.590; definition 2: HR=0.561, 95% CI: 0.219-1.436; definition 3: HR=0.853, 95% CI: 0.466-1.561; definition 4: HR=0.725, 95% CI: 0.384-1.370).ConclusionThese results do not suggest an association of GAS exposure and development of tics.Classification of EvidenceThis study provides Class I evidence that Group-A streptococcal exposure does not associate with the development of tics in children with first-degree relatives with chronic tic disorder.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11586/385671
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