The dopaminergic system (DS) is one of the most important neuromodulator systems involved in complex functions that are compromised in both autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conditions that frequently occur in overlap. This evidence suggests that both disorders might have common neurobiological pathways involving the DS. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the DRD1 and DRD2 dopamine receptor single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as potential risk factors for ASD, ADHD, and ASD/ADHD overlap. Genetic data were obtained from four groups: 75 ASD patients, 75 ADHD patients, 30 patients with ASD/ADHD overlap, and 75 healthy controls. All participants were between 2 and 17 years old. We compared the genotypic and allelic frequency of 18 SNPs among all of the study groups. Moreover, in the case of statistically significant differences, odds ratios (OR) were obtained to evaluate if the presence of SNPs might be a risk factor of developing a specific clinical phenotype. This study found that DRD1 and DRD2 receptors SNPs might be considered as potential risk factors for ASD and ADHD. However, only DRD2-12 (rs7131465) was significantly associated with a higher risk for the ASD/ADHD overlap. These data support the hypothesis of the genetic neuromodulation of the DS in the neurobiology of these conditions.

DRD1 and DRD2 Receptor Polymorphisms: Genetic Neuromodulation of the Dopaminergic System as a Risk Factor for ASD, ADHD and ASD/ADHD Overlap

Mariggio M. A.;Palumbi R.;Vinella A.;Laterza R.;Petruzzelli M. G.;Peschechera A.;Gabellone A.;Vincenti A.;Margari L.
2021

Abstract

The dopaminergic system (DS) is one of the most important neuromodulator systems involved in complex functions that are compromised in both autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conditions that frequently occur in overlap. This evidence suggests that both disorders might have common neurobiological pathways involving the DS. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the DRD1 and DRD2 dopamine receptor single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as potential risk factors for ASD, ADHD, and ASD/ADHD overlap. Genetic data were obtained from four groups: 75 ASD patients, 75 ADHD patients, 30 patients with ASD/ADHD overlap, and 75 healthy controls. All participants were between 2 and 17 years old. We compared the genotypic and allelic frequency of 18 SNPs among all of the study groups. Moreover, in the case of statistically significant differences, odds ratios (OR) were obtained to evaluate if the presence of SNPs might be a risk factor of developing a specific clinical phenotype. This study found that DRD1 and DRD2 receptors SNPs might be considered as potential risk factors for ASD and ADHD. However, only DRD2-12 (rs7131465) was significantly associated with a higher risk for the ASD/ADHD overlap. These data support the hypothesis of the genetic neuromodulation of the DS in the neurobiology of these conditions.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11586/378557
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