Mycetoma is an uncommon, chronic infective disease of the skin and subcutaneous tissues, characterized by the triad of tumefaction, draining sinuses, and the presence in the exudate of colonial grains. In cases of long-term disease, the presence of colonial grains together with the host's derivative material can lead to the formation of real sinuses. Histological analysis is of fundamental importance to allow an accurate etiological diagnosis and to understand if the basic pathogen is an actinomycete (bacterium) or a real fungus (eumycetic mycetomas) and is also fundamental for therapy, which is quite different. Here, we present a case of Mycetoma in an 11-year-old patient who emigrated from Djibouti, Somalia, and showed the essential histopathological features of this rare and forgotten nosographic entity in the industrialized world and briefly discuss the major and most important differential diagnoses.
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