The evolution of a bovine coronavirus (BCoV) natural infection in a calf persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) was described. The infected calf developed intermittent nasal discharge, diarrhea and hyperthermia. The total number of leukocytes/mL and the absolute differential number of neutrophils and lymphocytes resulted within the normal range, but monocytes increased at T28 (time 28 post‐infection). Flow‐cytometry analysis evidenced that the CD8+ subpopulation increased at T7 and between T28 and T35. BCoV shedding in nasal discharges and feces was detected up to three weeks post infection and high antibody titers persisted up to T56. The RNA BCoV load increased until T14, contrary to what was observed in a previous study where the fecal excretion of BCoV was significantly lower in the co‐infected (BCoV/BVDV) calves than in the calves infected with BCoV only. We can suppose that BVDV may have modulated the BCoV infection exacerbating the long viral excretion, as well as favoring the onset of mutations in the genome of BCoV detected in fecal samples at T21. An extensive study was performed to verify if the selective pressure in the S gene could be a natural mode of variation of BCoV, providing data for the identification of new epidemic strains, genotypes or recombinant betacoronaviruses.

Natural bovine coronavirus infection in a calf persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus: Viral shedding, immunological features and s gene variations

Pratelli A.
;
Lucente M. S.;Cordisco M.;Ciccarelli S.;Sposato A.;Mari V.;Capozza P.;Pellegrini F.;Carelli G.;Buonavoglia C.
2021-01-01

Abstract

The evolution of a bovine coronavirus (BCoV) natural infection in a calf persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) was described. The infected calf developed intermittent nasal discharge, diarrhea and hyperthermia. The total number of leukocytes/mL and the absolute differential number of neutrophils and lymphocytes resulted within the normal range, but monocytes increased at T28 (time 28 post‐infection). Flow‐cytometry analysis evidenced that the CD8+ subpopulation increased at T7 and between T28 and T35. BCoV shedding in nasal discharges and feces was detected up to three weeks post infection and high antibody titers persisted up to T56. The RNA BCoV load increased until T14, contrary to what was observed in a previous study where the fecal excretion of BCoV was significantly lower in the co‐infected (BCoV/BVDV) calves than in the calves infected with BCoV only. We can suppose that BVDV may have modulated the BCoV infection exacerbating the long viral excretion, as well as favoring the onset of mutations in the genome of BCoV detected in fecal samples at T21. An extensive study was performed to verify if the selective pressure in the S gene could be a natural mode of variation of BCoV, providing data for the identification of new epidemic strains, genotypes or recombinant betacoronaviruses.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11586/377735
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