Background and Objectives: Nusinersen was approved as the first disease-modifying therapy in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Our aim was to analyse therapy-related changes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum parameters of adult type 2–3 SMA and to correlate biochemical data with motor functional status. Methods: Nine adult SMA type 2–3 patients and ten control subjects without neurodegenerative diseases were included in our single-centre study. Cross-sectional analysis of CSF routine parameters, CSF neurofilament light chain, CSF Tau, CSF phospho-Tau and serum creatinine was performed between SMA patients at baseline (T0) and control subjects. The above-mentioned fluid parameters were longitudinally analysed in the SMA cohort after loading dose (T1) and after four maintenance doses (T2, T3, T4, T5). Hammersmith Functional Motor Scale Expanded (HFMSE), Revised Upper Limb Module (RULM) and the 6-minute walking test (6MWT) were used to evaluate motor outcomes. Results: Improvements in HFMSE, RULM and 6MWT were observed only after the loading dose of nusinersen. No significant differences in routine CSF parameters and CSF markers of neurodegeneration were found between SMA patients and control subjects. Serum creatinine levels were significantly lower in SMA patients than in control subjects. CSF/serum albumin ratio (Qalb) significantly increased from T0 to each time point, without any further increase after the maintenance doses. Persistent systemic oligoclonal bands (OCBs) were found in five patients from baseline. Three more patients developed persistent systemic OCBs from T1; one patient showed intrathecal OCBSs from baseline to T5. Markers of neurodegeneration did not change during the follow-up and did not correlate with motor scores at baseline and at each timepoint. Serum creatinine levels significantly correlated with HFMSE and RULM at each time point. Conclusions: The increase of the Qalb values and the development of systemic OCBs in some SMA patients could be due to repeated lumbar puncture and to the immunogenic effect of nusinersen. On the other hand, the presence of OCBs in serum and/or CSF at baseline should be further investigated. Furthermore, biomarkers of neurodegeneration did not play a prognostic role in our cohort of adult SMA patients.

Cerebrospinal Fluid and Clinical Profiles in Adult Type 2–3 Spinal Muscular Atrophy Patients Treated with Nusinersen: An 18-Month Single-Centre Experience

Milella G.;Introna A.;D'Errico E.;Scaglione G.;Ucci M.;Ruggieri M.;Mastrapasqua M.;Megna M.;Puntillo F.;Simone I. L.
2021-01-01

Abstract

Background and Objectives: Nusinersen was approved as the first disease-modifying therapy in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Our aim was to analyse therapy-related changes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum parameters of adult type 2–3 SMA and to correlate biochemical data with motor functional status. Methods: Nine adult SMA type 2–3 patients and ten control subjects without neurodegenerative diseases were included in our single-centre study. Cross-sectional analysis of CSF routine parameters, CSF neurofilament light chain, CSF Tau, CSF phospho-Tau and serum creatinine was performed between SMA patients at baseline (T0) and control subjects. The above-mentioned fluid parameters were longitudinally analysed in the SMA cohort after loading dose (T1) and after four maintenance doses (T2, T3, T4, T5). Hammersmith Functional Motor Scale Expanded (HFMSE), Revised Upper Limb Module (RULM) and the 6-minute walking test (6MWT) were used to evaluate motor outcomes. Results: Improvements in HFMSE, RULM and 6MWT were observed only after the loading dose of nusinersen. No significant differences in routine CSF parameters and CSF markers of neurodegeneration were found between SMA patients and control subjects. Serum creatinine levels were significantly lower in SMA patients than in control subjects. CSF/serum albumin ratio (Qalb) significantly increased from T0 to each time point, without any further increase after the maintenance doses. Persistent systemic oligoclonal bands (OCBs) were found in five patients from baseline. Three more patients developed persistent systemic OCBs from T1; one patient showed intrathecal OCBSs from baseline to T5. Markers of neurodegeneration did not change during the follow-up and did not correlate with motor scores at baseline and at each timepoint. Serum creatinine levels significantly correlated with HFMSE and RULM at each time point. Conclusions: The increase of the Qalb values and the development of systemic OCBs in some SMA patients could be due to repeated lumbar puncture and to the immunogenic effect of nusinersen. On the other hand, the presence of OCBs in serum and/or CSF at baseline should be further investigated. Furthermore, biomarkers of neurodegeneration did not play a prognostic role in our cohort of adult SMA patients.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11586/372460
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