Resistance to anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) molecules causes lack of response and disease recurrence. Acquired resistance develops as a result of genetic/epigenetic changes conferring to the cancer cells a drug resistant phenotype. In addition to tumor cells, tumor endothelial cells also undergo epigenetic modifications involved in resistance to anti-angiogenic therapies. The association of multiple anti-angiogenic molecules or a combination of anti-angiogenic drugs with other treatment regimens have been indicated as alternative therapeutic strategies to overcome resistance to anti-angiogenic therapies. Alternative mechanisms of tumor vasculature, including intussusceptive microvascular growth (IMG), vasculogenic mimicry, and vascular co-option, are involved in resistance to anti-angiogenic therapies. The crosstalk between angiogenesis and immune cells explains the efficacy of combining anti-angiogenic drugs with immune check-point inhibitors. Collectively, in order to increase clinical benefits and overcome resistance to anti-angiogenesis therapies, pan-omics profiling is key.
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