The review aimed to summarize advances in the topic of endocrine diseases and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Scientific and institutional websites and databases were searched and data were collected and organized, when plausible, to angle the discussion toward the following clinical issues. (1) Are patients with COVID-19 at higher risk of developing acute or late-onset endocrine diseases or dysfunction? (2) May the underlying endocrine diseases or dysfunctions be considered risk factors for poor prognosis once the infection has occurred? (3) Are there defined strategies to manage endocrine diseases despite pandemic-related constraints? Herein, the authors considered only relevant and more frequently observed endocrine diseases and disorders related to the hypothalamic-pituitary region, thyroid and parathyroid glands, calcium-phosphorus homeostasis and osteoporosis, adrenal glands, and gonads. Main. Data highlight the basis of some pathophysiological mechanisms and anatomical alterations of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-induced endocrine dysfunctions. Some conditions, such as adrenal insufficiency and cortisol excess, may be risk factors of worse clinical progression once the infection has occurred. These at-risk populations may require adequate education to avoid the SARS-CoV-2 infection and adequately manage medical therapy during the pandemic, even in emergencies. Endocrine disease management underwent a palpable restraint, especially procedures requiring obligate access to healthcare facilities for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Strategies of clinical triage to prioritize medical consultations, laboratory, instrumental evaluations, and digital telehealth solutions should be implemented to better deal with this probably long-term situation.

COVID-19 and the Endocrine System: A Comprehensive Review on the Theme

ANTONIO GIOVANNI SOLIMANDO;Federica Albanese;Martina Capobianco;Edoardo Guastamacchia;Giovanni DE PERGOLA;Angelo Vacca;Vito RACANELLI
;
VINCENZO TRIGGIANI
2021-01-01

Abstract

The review aimed to summarize advances in the topic of endocrine diseases and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Scientific and institutional websites and databases were searched and data were collected and organized, when plausible, to angle the discussion toward the following clinical issues. (1) Are patients with COVID-19 at higher risk of developing acute or late-onset endocrine diseases or dysfunction? (2) May the underlying endocrine diseases or dysfunctions be considered risk factors for poor prognosis once the infection has occurred? (3) Are there defined strategies to manage endocrine diseases despite pandemic-related constraints? Herein, the authors considered only relevant and more frequently observed endocrine diseases and disorders related to the hypothalamic-pituitary region, thyroid and parathyroid glands, calcium-phosphorus homeostasis and osteoporosis, adrenal glands, and gonads. Main. Data highlight the basis of some pathophysiological mechanisms and anatomical alterations of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-induced endocrine dysfunctions. Some conditions, such as adrenal insufficiency and cortisol excess, may be risk factors of worse clinical progression once the infection has occurred. These at-risk populations may require adequate education to avoid the SARS-CoV-2 infection and adequately manage medical therapy during the pandemic, even in emergencies. Endocrine disease management underwent a palpable restraint, especially procedures requiring obligate access to healthcare facilities for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Strategies of clinical triage to prioritize medical consultations, laboratory, instrumental evaluations, and digital telehealth solutions should be implemented to better deal with this probably long-term situation.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11586/370009
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