This review provides insight into the use of boric acid as a pharmaceutical, a buffer, and an adjuvant/excipient in pharmaceutical formulations. Boric acid is a Lewis acid with a pKa of 8.92–9.24 that is sensitive to temperature, ionic strength, and concentration. The pKa varies with concentration because of polymerization above 0.02 M. Boric acid reacts reversibly with alcohols, especially 1,2-diols including carbohydrates, with carboxylic acids, thiols, and amines. These esters/adducts, are also Lewis acids with lower pKa values. Boric acid can stabilize some materials while catalyzing the degradation of others. Boric acid is used in various dermal and women's hygiene products because of its mild antibacterial and antifungal activity. In ophthalmic products, it is used as a buffer and in combination with other preservatives to broaden the prservative spectrum. Boric acid has been used reluctantly in parenteral products but appears to be quite safe at low doses. However, at high exposure, toxicity, including death, has been reported in humans, especially in children. Animal toxicities have also been noted, including reductions in male sperm counts. Boric acid is well absorbed on oral dosing. Its biological half-life is about 21 h in humans and has an affinity for some tissues, especially bone.

Boric Acid, a Lewis Acid With Unique and Unusual Properties: Formulation Implications

Lopalco A.
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
;
Lopedota A. A.;Laquintana V.;Denora N.;
2020

Abstract

This review provides insight into the use of boric acid as a pharmaceutical, a buffer, and an adjuvant/excipient in pharmaceutical formulations. Boric acid is a Lewis acid with a pKa of 8.92–9.24 that is sensitive to temperature, ionic strength, and concentration. The pKa varies with concentration because of polymerization above 0.02 M. Boric acid reacts reversibly with alcohols, especially 1,2-diols including carbohydrates, with carboxylic acids, thiols, and amines. These esters/adducts, are also Lewis acids with lower pKa values. Boric acid can stabilize some materials while catalyzing the degradation of others. Boric acid is used in various dermal and women's hygiene products because of its mild antibacterial and antifungal activity. In ophthalmic products, it is used as a buffer and in combination with other preservatives to broaden the prservative spectrum. Boric acid has been used reluctantly in parenteral products but appears to be quite safe at low doses. However, at high exposure, toxicity, including death, has been reported in humans, especially in children. Animal toxicities have also been noted, including reductions in male sperm counts. Boric acid is well absorbed on oral dosing. Its biological half-life is about 21 h in humans and has an affinity for some tissues, especially bone.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11586/350941
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