Recent advances in tumor immunotherapy have made it possible to efficiently unleash immune effectors, reacting against neoplastic cells. Although these approaches primarily aim to eradicate malignancy, immune-related adverse events (irAEs) often influence patients’ prognosis, constituting a new spectrum of side effects. Taking into account the typical microenvironment and the intricate equilibrium between the anti-tumor response and the immune cells, the thymoma constitutes a unicum in the immune-oncology field. We report a fatal immune-mediated adverse events’ storm in a thymoma patient treated with Pembrolizumab, leading to hepatotoxicity accompanied by lymphocytosis, thrombocytopenia, and thyroid dysfunction, unveiling a novel potential pathophysiological effect of immunotherapy. The clinical proficiency of the immune checkpoint inhibitors in thymoma patients warrants timely prevention and management of off-target consequences in order to optimize this promising therapeutic option. This case report describes a unique consequence of irAEs, emerging as a red flag warranting a multidisciplinary approach.

Case Report: Lymphocytosis Associated With Fatal Hepatitis in a Thymoma Patient Treated With Anti-PD1: New Insight Into the Immune-Related Storm

Argentiero, Antonella
;
Solimando, Antonio Giovanni
;
Strippoli, Sabino;
2020-01-01

Abstract

Recent advances in tumor immunotherapy have made it possible to efficiently unleash immune effectors, reacting against neoplastic cells. Although these approaches primarily aim to eradicate malignancy, immune-related adverse events (irAEs) often influence patients’ prognosis, constituting a new spectrum of side effects. Taking into account the typical microenvironment and the intricate equilibrium between the anti-tumor response and the immune cells, the thymoma constitutes a unicum in the immune-oncology field. We report a fatal immune-mediated adverse events’ storm in a thymoma patient treated with Pembrolizumab, leading to hepatotoxicity accompanied by lymphocytosis, thrombocytopenia, and thyroid dysfunction, unveiling a novel potential pathophysiological effect of immunotherapy. The clinical proficiency of the immune checkpoint inhibitors in thymoma patients warrants timely prevention and management of off-target consequences in order to optimize this promising therapeutic option. This case report describes a unique consequence of irAEs, emerging as a red flag warranting a multidisciplinary approach.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11586/345310
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