This study was aimed at determining the serum concentration of homocysteine (Hcy) and big endothelin-1 (big ET-1, the precursor of endothelin) in dogs with chronic kidney disease (CKD) with and without hypertension, proteinuria and inflammation, in order to explore their role as biomarkers of hypertension associated with CKD. Hcy and big ET-1 were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and an enzymatic cyclic reaction, respectively, in dogs with CKD staged, as proposed by the International Renal Interest Society (IRIS), using serum creatinine, urinary protein to creatinine (UPC) ratio and systolic blood pressure, and classified as affected or not by inflammation based on the serum concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP).Serum Hcy was significantly higher in dogs of IRIS stages II, III and IV compared with controls and in proteinuric compared with non-proteinuric dogs. No differences relating to the degree of hypertension or to the CRP concentration were found. Serum big ET-1 significantly increased in dogs of IRIS stage IV compared with controls, in proteinuric compared with non-proteinuric dogs, in dogs with severe hypertension compared with those without hypertension, and in dogs with increased CRP compared to those with normal CRP concentrations. Hcy only correlated with serum creatinine but big ET-1 significantly correlated with serum creatinine, UPC ratio, systolic blood pressure, and increased CRP. In conclusion, both Hcy and big ET-1 increase in dogs with CKD. Although further research is needed, big ET-1, but not Hcy, may also be considered as a biomarker of hypertension. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
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