The loss of beta-cell functional mass is a necessary and early condition in the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). In T2D patients, beta-cell function is already reduced by about 50% at diagnosis and further declines thereafter. Beta-cell mass is also reduced in subjects with T2D, and islets from diabetic donors are smaller compared to non-diabetic donors. Thus, beta-cell regeneration and/or preservation of the functional islet integrity should be highly considered for T2D treatment and possibly cure. To date, the available anti-diabetes drugs have been developed as “symptomatic” medications since they act to primarily reduce elevated blood glucose levels. However, a truly efficient anti-diabetes medication, capable to prevent the onset and progression of T2D, should stop beta-cell loss and/or promote the restoration of fully functional beta-cell mass, independently of reducing hyperglycemia and ameliorating glucotoxicity on the pancreatic islets. This review provides a view of the experimental and clinical evidence on the ability of available anti-diabetes drugs to exert protective effects on beta-cells, with a specific focus on human pancreatic islets and clinical trials. Potential explanations for the lack of concordance between evidence of beta-cell protection in vitro and of persistent amelioration of beta-cell function in vivo are also discussed.

Functional loss of pancreatic islets in type 2 diabetes: How can we halt it?

Marrano N.;Biondi G.;Cignarelli A.;Perrini S.;Laviola L.;Giorgino F.
;
Natalicchio A.
2020-01-01

Abstract

The loss of beta-cell functional mass is a necessary and early condition in the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). In T2D patients, beta-cell function is already reduced by about 50% at diagnosis and further declines thereafter. Beta-cell mass is also reduced in subjects with T2D, and islets from diabetic donors are smaller compared to non-diabetic donors. Thus, beta-cell regeneration and/or preservation of the functional islet integrity should be highly considered for T2D treatment and possibly cure. To date, the available anti-diabetes drugs have been developed as “symptomatic” medications since they act to primarily reduce elevated blood glucose levels. However, a truly efficient anti-diabetes medication, capable to prevent the onset and progression of T2D, should stop beta-cell loss and/or promote the restoration of fully functional beta-cell mass, independently of reducing hyperglycemia and ameliorating glucotoxicity on the pancreatic islets. This review provides a view of the experimental and clinical evidence on the ability of available anti-diabetes drugs to exert protective effects on beta-cells, with a specific focus on human pancreatic islets and clinical trials. Potential explanations for the lack of concordance between evidence of beta-cell protection in vitro and of persistent amelioration of beta-cell function in vivo are also discussed.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11586/310438
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