The interaction between the bone marrow microenvironment and plasma cells plays an essential role in multiple myeloma progression and drug resistance. The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/VEGF receptor (VEGFR) pathway in vascular endothelial cells activates and promotes angiogenesis. Moreover, VEGF activates and promotes vasculogenesis and vasculogenic mimicry when it interacts with VEGF receptors expressed in precursor cells and inflammatory cells, respectively. In myeloma bone marrow, VEGF and VEGF receptor expression are upregulated and hyperactive in the stromal and tumor cells. It has been demonstrated that several antiangiogenic agents can effectively target VEGF-related pathways in the preclinical phase. However, they are not successful in treating multiple myeloma, probably due to the vicarious action of other cytokines and signaling pathways. Thus, the simultaneous blocking of multiple cytokine pathways, including the VEGF/VEGFR pathway, may represent a valid strategy to treat multiple myeloma. This review aims to summarize recent advances in understanding the role of the VEGF/VEGFR pathway in multiple myeloma, and mainly focuses on the transcription pathway and on strategies that target this pathway.

Anti-VEGF Drugs in the Treatment of Multiple Myeloma Patients

Ria, Roberto;Melaccio, Assunta;Racanelli, Vito;Vacca, Angelo
2020-01-01

Abstract

The interaction between the bone marrow microenvironment and plasma cells plays an essential role in multiple myeloma progression and drug resistance. The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/VEGF receptor (VEGFR) pathway in vascular endothelial cells activates and promotes angiogenesis. Moreover, VEGF activates and promotes vasculogenesis and vasculogenic mimicry when it interacts with VEGF receptors expressed in precursor cells and inflammatory cells, respectively. In myeloma bone marrow, VEGF and VEGF receptor expression are upregulated and hyperactive in the stromal and tumor cells. It has been demonstrated that several antiangiogenic agents can effectively target VEGF-related pathways in the preclinical phase. However, they are not successful in treating multiple myeloma, probably due to the vicarious action of other cytokines and signaling pathways. Thus, the simultaneous blocking of multiple cytokine pathways, including the VEGF/VEGFR pathway, may represent a valid strategy to treat multiple myeloma. This review aims to summarize recent advances in understanding the role of the VEGF/VEGFR pathway in multiple myeloma, and mainly focuses on the transcription pathway and on strategies that target this pathway.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11586/309480
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