Hypoxia, namely a lack of oxygen in the blood, induces pulmonary vasoconstriction and vasoremodeling, which serve as essential pathologic factors leading to pulmonary hypertension (PH). The underlying molecular mechanisms are uncertain; however, pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) play an essential role in hypoxia-induced pulmonary vasoconstriction, vasoremodeling, and PH. Hypoxia causes oxidative damage to DNAs, proteins, and lipids. This damage (oxidative stress) modulates the activity of ion channels and elevates the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i, Ca2+ signaling) of PASMCs. The oxidative stress and increased Ca2+ signaling mutually interact with each other, and synergistically results in a variety of cellular responses. These responses include functional and structural abnormalities of mitochondria, sarcoplasmic reticulum, and nucleus; cell contraction, proliferation, migration, and apoptosis, as well as generation of vasoactive substances, inflammatory molecules, and growth factors that mediate the development of PH. A number of studies reveal that various transcription factors (TFs) play important roles in hypoxia-induced oxidative stress, disrupted PAMSC Ca2+ signaling and the development and progress of PH. It is believed that in the pathogenesis of PH, hypoxia facilitates these roles by mediating the expression of multiple genes. Therefore, the identification of specific genes and their transcription factors implicated in PH is necessary for the complete understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms. Moreover, this identification may aid in the development of novel and effective therapeutic strategies for PH.

Role of transcription factors in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells: An important link to hypoxic pulmonary hypertension

Di Mise A.;
2017-01-01

Abstract

Hypoxia, namely a lack of oxygen in the blood, induces pulmonary vasoconstriction and vasoremodeling, which serve as essential pathologic factors leading to pulmonary hypertension (PH). The underlying molecular mechanisms are uncertain; however, pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) play an essential role in hypoxia-induced pulmonary vasoconstriction, vasoremodeling, and PH. Hypoxia causes oxidative damage to DNAs, proteins, and lipids. This damage (oxidative stress) modulates the activity of ion channels and elevates the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i, Ca2+ signaling) of PASMCs. The oxidative stress and increased Ca2+ signaling mutually interact with each other, and synergistically results in a variety of cellular responses. These responses include functional and structural abnormalities of mitochondria, sarcoplasmic reticulum, and nucleus; cell contraction, proliferation, migration, and apoptosis, as well as generation of vasoactive substances, inflammatory molecules, and growth factors that mediate the development of PH. A number of studies reveal that various transcription factors (TFs) play important roles in hypoxia-induced oxidative stress, disrupted PAMSC Ca2+ signaling and the development and progress of PH. It is believed that in the pathogenesis of PH, hypoxia facilitates these roles by mediating the expression of multiple genes. Therefore, the identification of specific genes and their transcription factors implicated in PH is necessary for the complete understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms. Moreover, this identification may aid in the development of novel and effective therapeutic strategies for PH.
978-3-319-63244-5
978-3-319-63245-2
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11586/294415
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