Translational readthrough (TRT) of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) has remarkably expanded the importance of this new post-transcriptional mechanism, as well as the regulation potential of AQP4. The TRT isoform of AQP4, named AQP4ex, is central for both AQP4 polarization and water channel activity in the central nervous system (CNS). Here we evaluate the relevance of the TRT mechanism by analyzing whether AQP4ex is also expressed in peripheral tissues and whether the expression of AQP4ex is necessary for its polarized expression as it occurs in perivascular astrocyte processes. To this purpose, AQP4ex null mice were used, and analysis was performed by immunolocalization and immunoblot. The results demonstrate that AQP4ex is expressed in kidney, stomach, trachea and skeletal muscle with the same localization pattern as the canonical AQP4 isoforms. AQP4ex protein levels vary from 6% to about 13% of the total AQP4 protein levels in peripheral tissues. Immunogold electron microscopy experiments demonstrated the localization of AQP4ex at the astrocytic endfeet, and experiments conducted on AQP4ex null mice CNS confirmed that the expression of AQP4ex is necessary for anchoring of the perivascular AQP4. Without the readthrough isoform, AQP4 assemblies are mis-localized, being uniformly distributed on the astrocyte processes facing the neuropile. No alteration of AQP4 polarization was found in AQP4ex null kidney, stomach, trachea or skeletal muscle, suggesting that AQP4ex does not have a role for proper membrane localization of AQP4 in peripheral tissues. We conclude that a dual role for AQP4ex is limited to the CNS.

Tissue distribution of the readthrough isoform of AQP4 reveals a dual role of AQP4ex limited to CNS

Palazzo C.;Abbrescia P.;Valente O.;Nicchia G. P.;Trojano M.;Frigeri A.
2020

Abstract

Translational readthrough (TRT) of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) has remarkably expanded the importance of this new post-transcriptional mechanism, as well as the regulation potential of AQP4. The TRT isoform of AQP4, named AQP4ex, is central for both AQP4 polarization and water channel activity in the central nervous system (CNS). Here we evaluate the relevance of the TRT mechanism by analyzing whether AQP4ex is also expressed in peripheral tissues and whether the expression of AQP4ex is necessary for its polarized expression as it occurs in perivascular astrocyte processes. To this purpose, AQP4ex null mice were used, and analysis was performed by immunolocalization and immunoblot. The results demonstrate that AQP4ex is expressed in kidney, stomach, trachea and skeletal muscle with the same localization pattern as the canonical AQP4 isoforms. AQP4ex protein levels vary from 6% to about 13% of the total AQP4 protein levels in peripheral tissues. Immunogold electron microscopy experiments demonstrated the localization of AQP4ex at the astrocytic endfeet, and experiments conducted on AQP4ex null mice CNS confirmed that the expression of AQP4ex is necessary for anchoring of the perivascular AQP4. Without the readthrough isoform, AQP4 assemblies are mis-localized, being uniformly distributed on the astrocyte processes facing the neuropile. No alteration of AQP4 polarization was found in AQP4ex null kidney, stomach, trachea or skeletal muscle, suggesting that AQP4ex does not have a role for proper membrane localization of AQP4 in peripheral tissues. We conclude that a dual role for AQP4ex is limited to the CNS.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11586/288674
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