Enteric glial cells (EGCs) are components of the enteric nervous system, an organized structure that controls gut functions. EGCs may be vulnerable to different agents, such as bacterial infections that could alter the intestinal epithelial barrier, allowing bacterial toxins and/or other agents possessing intrinsic toxic effect to access cells. Palmitate, known to exhibit lipotoxicity, is released in the gut during the digestion process. In this study, we investigated the lipotoxic effect of palmitate in cultured EGCs, with particular emphasis on palmitate-dependent intracellular lipid remodeling. Palmitate but not linoleate altered mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum lipid composition. In particular, the levels of phosphatidic acid, key precursor of phospholipid synthesis, increased, whereas those of mitochondrial cardiolipin (CL) decreased; in parallel, phospholipid remodeling was induced. CL remodeling (chains shortening and saturation) together with palmitate-triggered mitochondrial burst, caused cytochrome c (cyt c) detachment from its CL anchor and accumulation in the intermembrane space as soluble pool. Palmitate decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP levels, without mPTP opening. Mitochondrial ROS permeation into the cytosol and palmitate-induced ER stress activated JNK and p38, culminating in Bim and Bax overexpression, factors known to increase the outer mitochondrial membrane permeability. Overall, in EGCs palmitate produced weakening of cyt c-CL interactions and favoured the egress of the soluble cyt c pool outside mitochondria to trigger caspase-3-dependent viability loss. Elucidating the mechanisms of palmitate lipotoxicity in EGCs may be relevant in gut pathological conditions occurring in vivo such as those following an insult that may damage the intestinal epithelial barrier.
|Titolo:||Palmitate lipotoxicity in enteric glial cells: Lipid remodeling and mitochondrial ROS are responsible for cyt c release outside mitochondria|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2018|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|