Objective In the present study, we report our results of the use of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMCs) as a minimally invasive treatment for Legg-Calvé-Perthes in dogs. Study Design In accordance with Ljunggren's scale, inclusion criteria were determined by clinical condition and radiographic features of the disease, resulting in 32 dogs enrolled in this retrospective study from 2007 to 2019. Bone marrow was collected from each dog from the iliac crest and the mononuclear fraction was separated with density gradient centrifugation. The mean number of BMMCs was 104.7 ± 46.5 × 106 cells. The mean BMMC colony-forming units were 71.6 ± 51.9 × 102/mL. Cells were suspended in fibrin glue before BMMC administration and implanted via transcutaneous injection under computed tomography or radiographic guidance, using a Jamshidi needle inserted through the femoral head and neck. Results A progressive reduction of pain within 3 weeks after BMMC administration was observed in 28 patients, with gradually increased weight bearing on the affected limb. In four dogs, however, pain and lameness persisted and at 3 months post-BMMC injection, femoral head and neck resection was performed. Histological and immunohistochemical studies were done on samples from those four dogs, which showed evidence of formation of new cartilage and subchondral bone in the area where cells were implanted. Clinical Significance Based on these results, BMMC therapy may be considered as effective and minimally invasive treatment option for LCPD in dogs.
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