Background: The drosophilid Phortica variegata is known as vector of Thelazia callipaeda, the oriental eyeworm native to Asia that has become an emergent zoonotic agent in several European regions. Unlike almost all other arthropod vectors of pathogens, only P. variegata males feed of lachrymal secretions of animals, ingesting first-stage larvae (L1) of the worm living in the orbital cavities of the host, and allowing with the same behaviour the introduction of infective L3. Despite the increased detection of T. callipaeda in many European countries, information about the length of the lachryphagous activity period of P. variegata and a deep knowledge of the environmental and climatic variables involved are still limited. Methods: We herein present the results of a multicentre study involving five sites from four different countries (Italy, Spain, UK and USA) where canine thelaziosis is endemic and/or where it has already been ascertained the presence of P. variegata. Field data have been obtained on a fortnightly basis from mid-April to the end of November 2018 from a contemporary standardized sampling (same sampling effort and time of collection in all sites) of lachryphagous flies collected around the eyes of a human bait using an entomological net. These data have been associated to data collection of local climatic variables (day length, temperature, wind speed, barometric pressure and relative humidity). Results: Overall, a total of 4862 P. variegata flies (4637 males and 224 females) were collected, with high differences in densities among the different sampling sites. Significant positive correlations were found between P. variegata male density and temperature and wind speed, while negative correlations were observed for barometric pressure and relative humidity. However, the above significant differences are confirmed in each sampling site separately only for the temperature. Conclusions: This multicentre study highlights that temperature is the major common environmental driver in describing the lachryphagous activity of P. variegata in Europe and USA and, therefore, the transmission risk of thelaziosis.[Figure not available: see fulltext.]

Temperature is a common climatic descriptor of lachryphagous activity period in Phortica variegata (Diptera: Drosophilidae) from multiple geographical locations

Bernardini I.;Lia R. P.;Miro G.;Otranto D.
2020

Abstract

Background: The drosophilid Phortica variegata is known as vector of Thelazia callipaeda, the oriental eyeworm native to Asia that has become an emergent zoonotic agent in several European regions. Unlike almost all other arthropod vectors of pathogens, only P. variegata males feed of lachrymal secretions of animals, ingesting first-stage larvae (L1) of the worm living in the orbital cavities of the host, and allowing with the same behaviour the introduction of infective L3. Despite the increased detection of T. callipaeda in many European countries, information about the length of the lachryphagous activity period of P. variegata and a deep knowledge of the environmental and climatic variables involved are still limited. Methods: We herein present the results of a multicentre study involving five sites from four different countries (Italy, Spain, UK and USA) where canine thelaziosis is endemic and/or where it has already been ascertained the presence of P. variegata. Field data have been obtained on a fortnightly basis from mid-April to the end of November 2018 from a contemporary standardized sampling (same sampling effort and time of collection in all sites) of lachryphagous flies collected around the eyes of a human bait using an entomological net. These data have been associated to data collection of local climatic variables (day length, temperature, wind speed, barometric pressure and relative humidity). Results: Overall, a total of 4862 P. variegata flies (4637 males and 224 females) were collected, with high differences in densities among the different sampling sites. Significant positive correlations were found between P. variegata male density and temperature and wind speed, while negative correlations were observed for barometric pressure and relative humidity. However, the above significant differences are confirmed in each sampling site separately only for the temperature. Conclusions: This multicentre study highlights that temperature is the major common environmental driver in describing the lachryphagous activity of P. variegata in Europe and USA and, therefore, the transmission risk of thelaziosis.[Figure not available: see fulltext.]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11586/262699
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