Prevention of canine Leishmania infantum infection is critical to management of visceral leishmaniasis in people living in endemic areas of Brazil. A bill (PL 1738/11), currently under consideration, proposes to establish a national vaccination policy against canine leishmaniasis in Brazil. However, there is no solid scientific evidence supporting the idea that this could reduce transmission from infected vaccinated dogs to sand flies to a level that would significantly reduce the risk of L. infantum infection or visceral leishmaniasis in humans. Thus, we advocate that insecticide-impregnated collars should the first line protective measure for public health purposes and that vaccines are applied on a case-by-case, optional basis for individual dog protection.
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