Is Karate Training Effective in Improving Social Skills and Executive Functions in Children with Autism? Stefania Cataldi, Gianpiero Greco, Valerio Bonavolontà, Francesco Fischetti University of Study of Bari “Aldo Moro”, Bari, ITALY. Limited research exists exploring recreational activities (e.g. sport) as an integrative approach to therapy to bring benefits in social skills and executive functions. PURPOSE: This study examined the effects of 12-week traditional Shotokan Karate training on social-emotional skills and executive functioning of children (8-11 years) with diagnosed autism spectrum disorder. METHODS: Twenty-eight children were matched into pairs based on age, gender, and autism severity, and randomly allocated into an intervention (n = 14) or waitlist control group (n = 14). The intervention group performed Kata techniques training two times per week (45 min). The intervention included typically-developing children that helped facilitate the social skills, and activities targeted to train specific domains of executive functions, namely behavioral inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility. At baseline and after 12 weeks, parents assessed social skills and executive functioning respectively through the Social Skills Improvement System Rating Scale and Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function. RESULTS: Findings suggest that intervention group showed significantly greater socio-emotional skills (Δ 8.9 ± 3.1, p < 0.001, d = 2.85) and lesser behavioral problems (Δ -8.0 ± 3.1, p < 0.001, d = 2.64) than the control group, and decreased the behavioral (Δ -3.6 ± 2.7, p < 0.001, d = 1.36), emotion (Δ -3.5 ± 2.1, p < 0.001, d = 1.63) and cognitive (Δ -2.3 ± 1.5, p < 0.001, d = 1.54) regulation indexes, and the Global Executive Functioning Composite (Δ -3.2 ± 3.3, p = 0.003, d = 0.97). CONCLUSION: After 12 weeks, children with ASD showed a greater socio- emotional competence such as communication, cooperation and engagement, a better executive functioning ability such as cognitive flexibility, inhibitory control and working memory and a lower aggressiveness, sadness, anxiety and hyperactivity. Since ASD is a broad economic and societal problem that affects individual, family, and community levels. 475 Board #291 May 27 10:30 AM - 12:00 PM Goal Orientation And Beliefs About Success In Age Group Swimmers Nathan Rhea, Courtney Jensen, J. Mark VanNess. University of the Pacific, Stockton, CA. (No relevant relationships reported) Determining a swimmer’s goal orientation and what they believe makes them successful can help coaches create better workouts and outcome measures in young athletes. PURPOSE: Goal orientation (task vs ego) and success beliefs (effort, deception, ability and external factors) were examined in age group swimmers to determine if achievement theory differed by age. METHODS: Eighty (N=80), 11-18 year old USA Swimming club members, completed the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ) and the Beliefs About the Causes of Sport Success Questionnaire (BACSSQ). Parent consent and child assent was obtained. Regression and multivariate analyses were used to examine differences between age groups. RESULTS: Athletes with Ego orientation had significant positive relationships with ability and deception as beliefs about the causes of sport success (Wilks’ Λ = 0.010, F(6, 69) = 1,195, p<0.001 and p<0.05 for age categories, subsequent post hoc tests reached p<0.05 for significance). Those with Task orientation had a positive relationship with higher effort and negative relationship with deception as a belief about the cause of sport success. Age comparisons showed 13-14 and 15-18 year old age groups had significantly higher ego orientation than the 11-12 age group, the 15-18 age group having a significantly lower task orientation than both the 11-12 and 13-14 age groups. The 13-14 age group attributed deception to success in swimming significantly more than the 11-12 age group. CONCLUSION: Older swimmers develop a higher ego orientation and lower task orientation due to more visible differences in ability and an increased focus on performance. 476 Board #292 May 27 10:30 AM - 12:00 PM Ironic Process Theory In Softball Pitching: How Knowing Information About An Opponent’s Strengths Affects Performance Ronald Otterstetter, FACSM1, Mackenzie Conrad1, Mallory Kobak2, Brian Miller1, Judith Juvancic-Heltzel1. 1The University of Akron, Akron, OH. 2Hiram College, Hiram, OH. (No relevant relationships reported) INTRODUCTION: As athletic competition and college athletics continue to grow and flourish, there is an increased emphasis on game preparation. Collegiate softball pitchers are expected to handle an immense amount of pressure, perform with precision, and incur few errors. PURPOSE: Examine the Ironic Process Theory related to fast pitch softball pitching and to determine how knowing information about an opponent’s strengths affects experienced pitcher’s performance under pressure. METHODS: Experienced college softball pitchers (n = 12) were recruited as subjects. Each pitcher was randomly instructed through two 30 pitch phases (a high and low pressure phase) with two different conditions: black target only condition (BOTC) or black and red target condition (BRTC). Subjects were asked to aim and hit the black target and avoid the red target. The black target represented the weakness of the opponent and the red target represented the strength of the opponent. Performance pressure was measured before each phase using the Mental Readiness Form (MRF- 3) (Krane, 1994). RESULTS: Pre-MRF-3 reached statistical significance across the between-subjects factor of pressure, [t(22) = 3.102, p = 0.005] with a mean difference of 4.75 (95% C.I. 1.57 to 7.92) indicating that the pressure situation induced an increase in perceived anxiety and stress. ANCOVA did not reach statistical significance on the main effects of black targets hit nor the interactions terms for black targets hit by MRF-3 and black targets hit by Pressure. This finding asserts that there was no difference in performance between BRTC and BOTC across pressure after adjusting for perceived anxiety. There was no statistically significant difference of red target hit between the high pressure and low pressure situations, d = 0.25 (95% C.I. -0.463 to 0.963), t(22) = 0.723, p = 0.963. DISCUSSION: Practically speaking, the pitchers in this study did perform more effectively in the high pressure situation. Although different from previous Ironic Theory research, it is important to note this increased ability for pitchers to hit a desired target while under pressure. Even if not statistically significant, this can help pitchers and coaches understand the link between pressure and performance more effectively, and add training components to improve in stress situations.

Is Karate Training Effective in Improving Social Skills and Executive Functions in Children with Autism?

Cataldi S.;Greco G.;Bonavolontà V.;Fischetti F.
2020

Abstract

Is Karate Training Effective in Improving Social Skills and Executive Functions in Children with Autism? Stefania Cataldi, Gianpiero Greco, Valerio Bonavolontà, Francesco Fischetti University of Study of Bari “Aldo Moro”, Bari, ITALY. Limited research exists exploring recreational activities (e.g. sport) as an integrative approach to therapy to bring benefits in social skills and executive functions. PURPOSE: This study examined the effects of 12-week traditional Shotokan Karate training on social-emotional skills and executive functioning of children (8-11 years) with diagnosed autism spectrum disorder. METHODS: Twenty-eight children were matched into pairs based on age, gender, and autism severity, and randomly allocated into an intervention (n = 14) or waitlist control group (n = 14). The intervention group performed Kata techniques training two times per week (45 min). The intervention included typically-developing children that helped facilitate the social skills, and activities targeted to train specific domains of executive functions, namely behavioral inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility. At baseline and after 12 weeks, parents assessed social skills and executive functioning respectively through the Social Skills Improvement System Rating Scale and Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function. RESULTS: Findings suggest that intervention group showed significantly greater socio-emotional skills (Δ 8.9 ± 3.1, p < 0.001, d = 2.85) and lesser behavioral problems (Δ -8.0 ± 3.1, p < 0.001, d = 2.64) than the control group, and decreased the behavioral (Δ -3.6 ± 2.7, p < 0.001, d = 1.36), emotion (Δ -3.5 ± 2.1, p < 0.001, d = 1.63) and cognitive (Δ -2.3 ± 1.5, p < 0.001, d = 1.54) regulation indexes, and the Global Executive Functioning Composite (Δ -3.2 ± 3.3, p = 0.003, d = 0.97). CONCLUSION: After 12 weeks, children with ASD showed a greater socio- emotional competence such as communication, cooperation and engagement, a better executive functioning ability such as cognitive flexibility, inhibitory control and working memory and a lower aggressiveness, sadness, anxiety and hyperactivity. Since ASD is a broad economic and societal problem that affects individual, family, and community levels. 475 Board #291 May 27 10:30 AM - 12:00 PM Goal Orientation And Beliefs About Success In Age Group Swimmers Nathan Rhea, Courtney Jensen, J. Mark VanNess. University of the Pacific, Stockton, CA. (No relevant relationships reported) Determining a swimmer’s goal orientation and what they believe makes them successful can help coaches create better workouts and outcome measures in young athletes. PURPOSE: Goal orientation (task vs ego) and success beliefs (effort, deception, ability and external factors) were examined in age group swimmers to determine if achievement theory differed by age. METHODS: Eighty (N=80), 11-18 year old USA Swimming club members, completed the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ) and the Beliefs About the Causes of Sport Success Questionnaire (BACSSQ). Parent consent and child assent was obtained. Regression and multivariate analyses were used to examine differences between age groups. RESULTS: Athletes with Ego orientation had significant positive relationships with ability and deception as beliefs about the causes of sport success (Wilks’ Λ = 0.010, F(6, 69) = 1,195, p<0.001 and p<0.05 for age categories, subsequent post hoc tests reached p<0.05 for significance). Those with Task orientation had a positive relationship with higher effort and negative relationship with deception as a belief about the cause of sport success. Age comparisons showed 13-14 and 15-18 year old age groups had significantly higher ego orientation than the 11-12 age group, the 15-18 age group having a significantly lower task orientation than both the 11-12 and 13-14 age groups. The 13-14 age group attributed deception to success in swimming significantly more than the 11-12 age group. CONCLUSION: Older swimmers develop a higher ego orientation and lower task orientation due to more visible differences in ability and an increased focus on performance. 476 Board #292 May 27 10:30 AM - 12:00 PM Ironic Process Theory In Softball Pitching: How Knowing Information About An Opponent’s Strengths Affects Performance Ronald Otterstetter, FACSM1, Mackenzie Conrad1, Mallory Kobak2, Brian Miller1, Judith Juvancic-Heltzel1. 1The University of Akron, Akron, OH. 2Hiram College, Hiram, OH. (No relevant relationships reported) INTRODUCTION: As athletic competition and college athletics continue to grow and flourish, there is an increased emphasis on game preparation. Collegiate softball pitchers are expected to handle an immense amount of pressure, perform with precision, and incur few errors. PURPOSE: Examine the Ironic Process Theory related to fast pitch softball pitching and to determine how knowing information about an opponent’s strengths affects experienced pitcher’s performance under pressure. METHODS: Experienced college softball pitchers (n = 12) were recruited as subjects. Each pitcher was randomly instructed through two 30 pitch phases (a high and low pressure phase) with two different conditions: black target only condition (BOTC) or black and red target condition (BRTC). Subjects were asked to aim and hit the black target and avoid the red target. The black target represented the weakness of the opponent and the red target represented the strength of the opponent. Performance pressure was measured before each phase using the Mental Readiness Form (MRF- 3) (Krane, 1994). RESULTS: Pre-MRF-3 reached statistical significance across the between-subjects factor of pressure, [t(22) = 3.102, p = 0.005] with a mean difference of 4.75 (95% C.I. 1.57 to 7.92) indicating that the pressure situation induced an increase in perceived anxiety and stress. ANCOVA did not reach statistical significance on the main effects of black targets hit nor the interactions terms for black targets hit by MRF-3 and black targets hit by Pressure. This finding asserts that there was no difference in performance between BRTC and BOTC across pressure after adjusting for perceived anxiety. There was no statistically significant difference of red target hit between the high pressure and low pressure situations, d = 0.25 (95% C.I. -0.463 to 0.963), t(22) = 0.723, p = 0.963. DISCUSSION: Practically speaking, the pitchers in this study did perform more effectively in the high pressure situation. Although different from previous Ironic Theory research, it is important to note this increased ability for pitchers to hit a desired target while under pressure. Even if not statistically significant, this can help pitchers and coaches understand the link between pressure and performance more effectively, and add training components to improve in stress situations.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11586/259166
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