There are about 80 species of toxic or venomous Echinoderms. In particular, sea urchins, with their spine-covered bodies, are poisonous and can induce various types of reaction in man both when eaten as seafood and when they sting. In the first case, because of the toxins present in their gonads, the symptoms, although rarely fatal, will include gastrointestinal disorders and allergic reactions. Contact with the spines, that are sharp and very fragile, induces immediate and delayed reactions. Penetration of the spines into the skin causes immediate, burning pain, followed by erythema and edema, and there may be abundant bleeding from the affected part. Systemic symptoms can also develop, including nausea, muscle cramps, and respiratory distress. These symptoms can last up to 1-2 weeks, provided that the spines are immediately and completely removed. Delayed reactions are notoriously nodular granulomatous lesions, mostly considered to be non immunological reactions to a foreign body. Starfish can induce an urticarial clinical picture due to their toxins released in the water, as well as nodular granulomatous lesions after contact with the spines, that can be associated with very severe systemic symptoms. Again as a result of a toxic substance released into the water, seacucumbers can induce an irritant contact dermatitis and ocular lesions that can even end in blindness.
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|Titolo:||Dermatitis caused by echinoderms|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2016|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||2.1 Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio)|