BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a clinical condition potentially promoting the development of atherosclerotic disease. To date, the clinical impact of elevated serum homocysteine (Hcy) levels in MetS is still under discussion. The aim of this cross sectional study was to evaluate the relationship between MetS and hyperhomocysteinemia and the potential role of Hcy in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic complications of MetS. METHODS: We recruited 300 outpatients with MetS. All patients underwent a medical history collection, physical examination, blood sampling and carotid ultrasound echo-color Doppler. According to Hcy levels, MetS patients were divided into two groups: "normal" (< 10.7 μmol/l; n = 140, group 1) and "high" Hcy (≥ 10.7 μmol/l; n = 160, group 2). Comparisons between groups were made by Student's t-test or Chi-square test. The effects of potential covariates on group differences were evaluated by general linear models. The relationships between continuous variables were assessed by simple or multiple correlation and by linear regression. Multiple regression models were built to evaluate the effects of Hcy, together with other potential risk factors, on carotid atherosclerosis. RESULTS: Patients with high Hcy were predominantly male and slightly older than group 1 patients. Smokers and non-smokers exhibited similar Hcy levels, nor was a statistical relationship between pack-years and Hcy observed. Group 2 showed lower levels of folic acid, vitamin D, high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and glomerular filtration rate (e-GFR) than group 1, but higher levels of C-peptide, uric acid and triglycerides. In all patients, Hcy was positively correlated with C-peptide and uric acid and negatively with folic acid and e-GFR. Intima-media thickness (IMT) and carotid stenosis degree were significantly higher in patients with high Hcy and a positive relationship between Hcy and both IMT and carotid stenosis was detected in all patients. Finally, Hcy atherogenic effects were independent of other well-known atherosclerosis risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Our results highlight a link between MetS and hyperhomocysteinemia and a direct effect of Hcy on atherogenic process during MetS. Early correction of folic acid levels may contribute to prevent cardiovascular complications in MetS patients.

Hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor of atherosclerosis in patients with metabolic syndrome

Piazzolla, Giuseppina
Conceptualization
;
CANDIGLIOTA, MAFALDA
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Fanelli, Margherita
Methodology
;
BATTAGLIA, STEFANO
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Solfrizzi, Vincenzo
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Sabbà, Carlo
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Tortorella, Cosimo
Conceptualization
2019

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a clinical condition potentially promoting the development of atherosclerotic disease. To date, the clinical impact of elevated serum homocysteine (Hcy) levels in MetS is still under discussion. The aim of this cross sectional study was to evaluate the relationship between MetS and hyperhomocysteinemia and the potential role of Hcy in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic complications of MetS. METHODS: We recruited 300 outpatients with MetS. All patients underwent a medical history collection, physical examination, blood sampling and carotid ultrasound echo-color Doppler. According to Hcy levels, MetS patients were divided into two groups: "normal" (< 10.7 μmol/l; n = 140, group 1) and "high" Hcy (≥ 10.7 μmol/l; n = 160, group 2). Comparisons between groups were made by Student's t-test or Chi-square test. The effects of potential covariates on group differences were evaluated by general linear models. The relationships between continuous variables were assessed by simple or multiple correlation and by linear regression. Multiple regression models were built to evaluate the effects of Hcy, together with other potential risk factors, on carotid atherosclerosis. RESULTS: Patients with high Hcy were predominantly male and slightly older than group 1 patients. Smokers and non-smokers exhibited similar Hcy levels, nor was a statistical relationship between pack-years and Hcy observed. Group 2 showed lower levels of folic acid, vitamin D, high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and glomerular filtration rate (e-GFR) than group 1, but higher levels of C-peptide, uric acid and triglycerides. In all patients, Hcy was positively correlated with C-peptide and uric acid and negatively with folic acid and e-GFR. Intima-media thickness (IMT) and carotid stenosis degree were significantly higher in patients with high Hcy and a positive relationship between Hcy and both IMT and carotid stenosis was detected in all patients. Finally, Hcy atherogenic effects were independent of other well-known atherosclerosis risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Our results highlight a link between MetS and hyperhomocysteinemia and a direct effect of Hcy on atherogenic process during MetS. Early correction of folic acid levels may contribute to prevent cardiovascular complications in MetS patients.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11586/254739
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