Autophagy is a powerful tool that host cells use to defend against viral infection. Mitophagy, the selective autophagic removal of dysfunctional mitochondria was upregulated in urothelial cancer cells harbouring bovine papillomavirus (BPV) infection, as detected by the expression of BPV E5 protein, the major oncoprotein of bovine Deltapapillomavirus genus. HIF-1 alpha-induced mitophagy receptors, BNIP3 and BNIP3L/Nix, were found to be overexpressed in these cells. The BNIP3 and BNIP3L/Nix receptors were amplified, and amplicon sequencing showed homology between bovine BNPI3 and BNIP3L/Nix sequences deposited in GenBank (accession number: NM_001076366.1 and NM_001034614.2, respectively). The transcripts and protein levels of BNIP3 and BNIP3L/Nix were significantly overexpressed in hypoxic neoplastic cells relative to healthy, non-neoplastic cells. BNIP3 and BNIP3L/Nix interacted with the LC3 protein, a marker of autophagosome (mitophagosome) membrane, ERAS, a small GTPase, and p62, known to be a specific autophagy receptor protein, that plays a role in mitochondrial priming for mitophagy and subsequent elimination. ERAS also interacted with the BPV E5 oncoprotein at mitochondrial level. Furthermore, in anti-Bag3 mitochondrial immunoprecipitates, a complex composed of the Hsc70/Hsp70 chaperone, CHIP co-chaperone, Synpo2, ERAS, LC3, p62, BNPI3, and BNIP3L/Nix was also detected. Bag3 may play a role in mitophagosome formation together with the Synpo2 protein and may be involved in the degradation of Hsc70/Hsp70-bound CHIP-ubiquitinated cargo, in association with its chaperone. ERAS may be involved in mitophagosome maturation via the PI3K signalling pathway. Ultrastructural findings revealed the presence of mitochondria exhibiting severe fragmentation and loss of cristae, as well as numerous mitochondria-containing autophagosomes.
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|Titolo:||Mitophagy mediated by BNIP3 and BNIP3L/NIX in urothelial cells of the urinary bladder of cattle harbouring bovine papillomavirus infection|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2019|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|