Background Mediterranean and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diets associate with lower cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in the general population, but the benefits for patients on hemodialysis are uncertain.Methods Mediterranean and DASH diet scores were derived from the GA(2)LEN Food Frequency Questionnaire within the DIET-HD Study, a multinational cohort study of 9757 adults on hemodialysis. We conducted adjusted Cox regression analyses clustered by country to evaluate the association between diet score tertiles and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality (the lowest tertile was the reference category).Results During the median 2.7-year follow-up, 2087 deaths (829 cardiovascular deaths) occurred. The adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for the middle and highest Mediterranean diet score tertiles were 1.20 (1.01 to 1.41) and 1.14 (0.90 to 1.43), respectively, for cardiovascular mortality and 1.10 (0.99 to 1.22) and 1.01 (0.88 to 1.17), respectively, for all-cause mortality. Corresponding estimates for the same DASH diet score tertiles were 1.01 (0.85 to 1.21) and 1.19 (0.99 to 1.43), respectively, for cardiovascular mortality and 1.03 (0.92 to 1.15) and 1.00 (0.89 to 1.12), respectively, for all-cause mortality. The association between DASH diet score and all-cause death was modified by age (P=0.03); adjusted hazard ratios for the middle and highest DASH diet score tertiles were 1.02 (0.81 to 1.29) and 0.70 (0.53 to 0.94), respectively, for younger patients (60 years old) and 1.05 (0.93 to 1.19) and 1.08 (0.95 to 1.23), respectively, for older patients.Conclusions Mediterranean and DASH diets did not associate with cardiovascular or total mortality in hemodialysis.
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